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Mishnayos Menachos Perek 5 Mishnah 3

מנחות פרק ה׳ משנה ג׳


There are four types of meal offerings: Those that require both oil and frankincense, those that require oil but not frankincense, those that require frankincense but not oil, and those that require neither frankincense nor oil. The mishna elaborates: And these are the meal offerings that require both oil and frankincense: The fine-flour meal offering, as it is stated: “And he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon” (Leviticus 2:1); the meal offering prepared in a pan (see Leviticus 2:5–6); the meal offering prepared in a deep pan (see Leviticus 2:7–10); and the meal offering baked in an oven, which can be brought in the form of loaves or in the form of wafers (see Leviticus 2:4). Additional meal offerings that require both oil and frankincense are the meal offering of priests; the meal offering of the anointed priest, i.e., the griddle-cake offering brought by the High Priest every day, half in the morning and half in the evening; the meal offering of a gentile; a meal offering brought by women; and the omer meal offering (see Leviticus 23:15). The meal offering brought with libations that accompany burnt offerings and peace offerings requires oil but does not require frankincense. The shewbread requires frankincense but does not require oil. The two loaves brought on the festival of Shavuot (see Leviticus 23:17), the meal offering of a sinner, and the meal offering of jealousy brought by a sota require neither oil nor frankincense. The two loaves do not require oil or frankincense because these additions are not mentioned with regard to it. The meal offering of a sinner does not require them, as it is written: “He shall not put oil upon it, neither shall he give any frankincense upon it; for it is a sin offering” (Leviticus 5:11). With regard to the meal offering brought by a sota, it is similarly written: “He shall pour no oil upon it, nor give frankincense upon it, for it is a meal offering of jealousy, a meal offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance” (Numbers 5:15).

יֵשׁ טְעוּנוֹת שֶׁמֶן וּלְבוֹנָה, שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה, לְבוֹנָה וְלֹא שֶׁמֶן, לֹא שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה. וְאֵלּוּ טְעוּנוֹת שֶׁמֶן וּלְבוֹנָה, מִנְחַת הַסֹּלֶת, וְהַמַּחֲבַת, וְהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת, וְהַחַלּוֹת, וְהָרְקִיקִין, מִנְחַת כֹּהֲנִים, וּמִנְחַת כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ, וּמִנְחַת גּוֹיִם, וּמִנְחַת נָשִׁים, וּמִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר. מִנְחַת נְסָכִין טְעוּנָה שֶׁמֶן, וְאֵין טְעוּנָה לְבוֹנָה. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים טָעוּן לְבוֹנָה, וְאֵין טָעוּן שָׁמֶן. שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, מִנְחַת חוֹטֵא וּמִנְחַת קְנָאוֹת, לֹא שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה:


מנחת סולת – a person who vows a mere free-will meal-offering, brings fine flour and oil and frankincense and mixes it and takes a handful as it is prior to baking it. And for which it is written (Leviticus 2:1): “he shall pour oil upon it, lay frankincense on it,” all of these others we derive from the meal-offering of fine flour where it is written regarding the meal-offering of fine flour (Leviticus 2:1): “when a person,” that implies that all meal-offerings of an individual require oil and frankincense.

והחלות והרקיקין – a meal-offering of grain that is baked in an oven is called, the loaves [of bread] and the wafers. For if he requires loaves [of bread], he brings them and if he requires wafers, he brings wafers.

ומנחת כהנים – a Kohen who volunteers to donate one from these five meal-offerings.

מנחת כהן משיח – the meal-offering of unleavened cakes (see Tractate Menahot, Chapter 4, Mishnah 5).

גוי – [a heathen] who freely donates a meal-offering as we derive from "איש איש"/anyone (Leviticus 17:8 – “If any one of the house of Israel or of the strangers who reside among them offers a burnt-offering or a sacrifice”) which teaches that heathens bring votive offerings and free-will offerings like Israelites.

ומנחת נשים – a woman who vowed to donate a meal-offering.

ומנחת נסכים – which does not require frankincense, for oil is stated with it but not frankincense (see Numbers 15:4-5).

ולחם הפנים – it is written regarding it (Leviticus 24:7): “With each row you shall place pure frankincense, [which is to be a token offering for the read, as a gift to the LORD].” But oil is not written there.

שתי חלות – of Atzeret/Shavuot, but it is not mentioned on them neither oil nor frankincense (see Leviticus 5:11: “he shall not add oil to it or lay frankincense on it, [for it is a purification offering].”

מנחת חוטא ומנחת קנאות – it is written explicitly regarding them (Leviticus 5:11): “he shall not add oil to it or lay frankincense to it” (and Numbers 5:15: “No oil shall be poured upon it and no frankincense shall be laid upon it for it is a grain offering of jealousy.”).

מנחת סולת. המתנדב מנחה סתם, מביא סולת ושמן ולבונה ובוללה וקומצה כמו שהיא קודם אפייה. ובדידה כתיב שמן ולבונה, וכל הני אחריני גמרי ממנחת סולת דכתיב בה נפש, דמשמע דכל מנחת יחיד טעונה שמן ולבונה:

והחלות והרקיקין. למנחת מאפה תנור קרי החלות והרקיקין. דאי בעי חלות מייתי ואי בעי רקיקין מייתי:

ומנחת כהנים. כהן שהתנדב אחת מחמשת מנחות הללו:

מנחת כהן משיח. מנחת חביתין:

גוי. מתנדב מנחה, כדילפינן מאיש איש, מלמד שהנכרים מביאין נדרים ונדבות כישראל:

ומנחת נשים. אשה שהתנדבה מנחה:

ומנחת נסכים. לא בעי לבונה, דשמן נאמר בה ולא לבונה:

ולחם הפנים. כתיב ביה (ויקרא כ״ד:ז׳) ונתת על המערכת לבונה זכה, ולא כתיב ביה שמן:

שתי החלות. של עצרת, לא הוזכר בהן לא שמן ולא לבונה:

מנחת חוטא ומנחת קנאות. בהדיא כתיב בהו (שם ה׳) לא ישים עליה שמן ולא יתן עליה לבונה: