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Mishnayos Menachos Perek 13 Mishnah 9

מנחות פרק י"ג משנה ט׳


With regard to one who said: This bull is hereby a burnt offering, and subsequently it became blemished [venista’ev] and was disqualified from sacrifice, he should redeem the bull and with that money purchase another bull as an offering in its stead. If he wishes, he may bring two bulls with its redemption money instead of one. If one says: These two bulls are hereby a burnt offering, and subsequently they became blemished, if he wishes he may bring one bull with their redemption money. And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi deems this prohibited, and holds that he must bring two bulls. In a case where one said: This ram is hereby a burnt offering, and it became blemished, if he wishes he may bring a lamb with its redemption money. In a case where one said: This lamb is hereby a burnt offering, and it became blemished, if he wishes he may bring a ram with its redemption money. And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi deems it prohibited for one to bring one type of animal with redemption money from another type of animal. With regard to one who says: One of my lambs is consecrated, or: One of my bulls is consecrated, and he has two lambs or bulls, the larger of them is consecrated. If he has three lambs or bulls, the middle-sized animal among them is consecrated. If one says: I specified the lamb or bull that is to be consecrated but I do not know what animal I specified in my vow, or he says that: My father said to me before his death that he consecrated one of the lambs or the bulls, but I do not know what animal he consecrated, the largest of them is consecrated.

שׁוֹר זֶה עוֹלָה, וְנִסְתָּאֵב, אִם רָצָה, יָבִיא בְדָמָיו שְׁנָיִם. שְׁנֵי שְׁוָרִים אֵלּוּ עוֹלָה, וְנִסְתָּאֲבוּ, אִם רָצָה, יָבִיא בִדְמֵיהֶם אֶחָד. רַבִּי אוֹסֵר. אַיִל זֶה עוֹלָה, וְנִסְתָּאֵב, אִם רָצָה, יָבִיא בְדָמָיו כֶּבֶשׂ. כֶּבֶשׂ זֶה עוֹלָה וְנִסְתָּאֵב, אִם רָצָה, יָבִיא בְדָמָיו אַיִל. רַבִּי אוֹסֵר. הָאוֹמֵר אַחַד מִכְּבָשַׂי הֶקְדֵּשׁ, וְאַחַד מִשְּׁוָרַי הֶקְדֵּשׁ, הָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנַיִם, הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶן הֶקְדֵּשׁ. שְׁלשָׁה, הַבֵּינוֹנִי שֶׁבָּהֶן הֶקְדֵּשׁ. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר, אָמַר לִי אַבָּא וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מָה, הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶן הֶקְדֵּשׁ:


ונסתאב – a blemish befell it, for a blemish is called impure, as it is written (Leviticus 27:11-12): “if [the vow concerns] any impure animal that may not be brought as an offering to the LORD, [the animal shall be presented to the priest. And the priest shall assess it whether high or low, whatever assessment is set by the priest shall stand],” and the Biblical verse speaks regarding [animals with] blemishes, as we explained in our chapter above (see the previous Mishnah).

ואם רצה יביא בדמיו שמים – but it is not similar to the first clause where we said that for a bull, one brings a Maneh (i.e., 100 denar) but if he brought two [bulls] for a Maneh, he did not fulfill his religious obligation, for there when he said, “I pledge myself [to bring] an ox for a Maneh [to the value of a Maneh], he is liable until he brings it, but here, with this bull that developed a blemish is different, for since he said I will sacrifice this bull as a burnt offering and it became blemished, his vow is gone, and he is not able to further fulfill it.

רבי אוסר – [Rabbi Judah the Prince forbids it] ab initio. But if he brought it, he has fulfilled his religious obligation. For since that he stated this, he is not liable for them (or property which may be resorted to in the event of non-payment). But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi [Judah the Prince].

הבינוני שבהם הקדש – even the middle-sized one of them is dedicated [to the Temple]. For if he has two, the large one is dedicated. For one who dedicates [to the Temple] dedicates generously, and for something undefined, the best of them is dedicated as it is written (Deuteronomy 12:11): “[then you must bring everything that I command you to the site where the LORD your God will choose to establish His name; your burnt offerings and other sacrifices, your tithes and contributions,] and all the choice votive offerings that you vow to the LORD.” And similarly, if he has three [lambs], we are concerning even for the middle-sized one , for we don’t know upon which of them occurs the dedication, if it is the large one which is done generally, or the middle-sized one which is generous [in comparison to] the small one. Therefore, both of them are forbidden. But however, if he did not make an offering to the altar of any other than one of them, and how do we act that he permits one of them and delays [the offering] of the middle-sized one until a blemish befalls it, and he redeems that one for the largest one. For whichever way you turn, if it is the middle-sized one upon which dedication occurs and not on the large one, indeed a blemish befell it and he redeemed it. But if it was on the large one upon which the dedication fell initially, and it is found that the middle-sized one was not consecrated from the outset.

פירשתי – [I explicitly expressed] which if them but I didn’t know which it is.

או שאמר לי אבא – [my father told me] at the time of his passing, one of my bulls I explicitly expressed for dedication but I don’t know on which of them he told me.

הגדול שבהן הקדש – for where that he stated that I explicitly expressed it there is no doubt that it is the largest one I expressed.

ונסתאב. שנפל בו מום. דבעל מום אקרי טמא כדכתיב (ויקרא כ״ז:י״א) ואם כל בהמה טמאה אשר לא יקריבו ממנה קרבן לה׳, ובבעלי מומין שיפדו הכתוב מדבר, כדפרשינן בפרקין דלעיל:

אם רצה יביא בדמיו שנים. ולא דמי לרישא דאמרינן שור במנה והביא שנים במנה לא יצא, דהתם דאמר הרי עלי שור במנה חייב עד שיביאנו, אבל הכא בשור זה ונסתאב שאני, דכיון דאמר שור זה אקריב עולה ונסתאב, אזל ליה נדריה, דתו לא מצי לקיומיה:

רבי אוסר. לכתחלה. אבל אם הביא יצא. דכיון דאמר זה, אינו חייב באחריותו. ואין הלכה כרבי:

הבינוני שבהן הקדש. אף הבינוני שבהן הקדש. דכי יש לו שנים, הגדול הקדש, שהמקדיש בעין יפה מקדיש ומסתמא מוטב שבהן הקדיש דכתיב (דברים י״ב:י״א) מבחר נדריכם. וכי יש לו שלשה, חוששין אף לבינוני, דלא ידעינן אהי מינייהו חל ההקדש, אי אגדול דהוי עין יפה, אי אבינוני דהוי עין יפה לגבי קטן, הלכך תרוייהו אסירי. מיהו לא קרב למזבח אלא חד מינייהו. והיכי עביד דלשתרי חד מינייהו, ממתין לבינוני עד שיומם, ומחלל אותו אגדול. דממה נפשך, אי אבינוני חל ולא אגדול, הרי נפל בו מום וחללו. ואי אגדול חל מעיקרא, נמצא בינוני חולין מעיקרא:

פירשתי. איזה מהן ולא ידעתי איזה הוא:

או שאמר לי אבא. בשעת מיתתו, אחד משוורי הפרשתי להקדש ואיני יודע על איזה מהן אמר לי:

הגדול שבהן הקדש. דהיכא דאמר פירשתי ליכא ספיקא דודאי הגדול פירש: