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Mishnayos Menachos Perek 11 Mishnah 4

מנחות פרק י"א משנה ד׳


All preparatory procedures of the meal offerings that take place inside the Temple courtyard, e.g., kneading and forming the High Priest’s griddle cakes, involve the use of a service vessel that consecrates the offerings. But any preparatory procedures that take place outside the Temple courtyard, e.g., kneading and forming the two loaves and the shewbread, do not involve the use of a service vessel. With regard to the two loaves, their length is seven handbreadths, their width is four handbreadths, and they have hornlike protrusions made of dough that is attached to each of their corners, which are four fingerbreadths high. With regard to the loaves of shewbread, their length is ten handbreadths, their width is five handbreadths, and each loaf’s hornlike protrusions is seven fingerbreadths high. Rabbi Yehuda says: The following letters are a mnemonic so that you will not err and forget the dimensions of the two loaves: Zayin, dalet, dalet. The numerical value of the letter zayin is seven and the numerical value of the letter dalet is four. The mnemonic therefore represents the length of seven handbreadths, the width of four handbreadths, and the height of four fingerbreadths, respectively. The following letters are a mnemonic for the dimensions of the shewbread: Yod, heh, zayin, which stand for the length of ten handbreadths, the width of five handbreadths, and the height of seven fingerbreadths, respectively. Ben Zoma says that it is written: “And you shall set upon the Table shewbread [leḥem panim] before Me always” (Exodus 25:30). The term leḥem panim indicates that it should have vertical sides [panim] rather than a rounded shape.

כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מַעֲשֵׂה כְלִי בִּפְנִים, וְאֵין בָּהֶן מַעֲשֵׂה כְלִי בַחוּץ. כֵּיצַד. שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם אָרְכָּן שִׁבְעָה וְרָחְבָּן אַרְבָּעָה, וְקַרְנוֹתֵיהֶן אַרְבַּע אֶצְבָּעוֹת. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, אָרְכָּן עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחְבָּן חֲמִשָּׁה, וְקַרְנוֹתָיו שֶׁבַע אֶצְבָּעוֹת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁלֹּא תִטְעֶה, זד"ד יה"ז. בֶּן זוֹמָא אוֹמֵר, וְנָתַתָּ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן לֶחֶם פָּנִים לְפָנַי תָּמִיד, שֶׁיְּהֵא לוֹ פָנִים:


יש בהן מעשה כלי בפנים – in their work which is performed with them inside [the Temple courtyard] requires a [consecrated] utensil.. To exclude on top of a board. But their work (i.e., preparation) is done outside [the Temple courtyard], as for example the kneading and rolling of the shewbread, which does not require a [consecrated] utensil.

וקרנותיה – on which he fastens/pastes dough for each board, like horns. And the length of each horn/projection extends four fingers.

רבי יהודה אומר שלא תטעה – whether the two loaves to the shewbread, whether in the measurement of the length and the width, or whether in the measurement of the horns/projections. The two loaves, its length is seven [handbreadths] and its width is four [handbreadths] and its horns/projections are four finger lengths. And your sign/pneumonic is זד"ד/seven, four, four. The shewbread, its length is ten [handbreadths] and its width is five [handbreadths] and its horns/projections is seven fingers length. And your symbol/pneumonic is יה"ז/ten, five and seven. And the methodology of Rabbi Yehuda is to give signs/pneumonic like דצ"ך עד"ש באח"ב (i.e., the abbreviations for the Ten Plagues found in the Passover Haggadah).

שיהא לו פנים – walls [that it would have corners/angles] and these are the horns.

יש בהן מעשה כלי בפנים. במלאכתן שנעשה בהן בפנים טעונים כלי. לאפוקי על גבי טבלא. ובמלאכתן שנעשית בחוץ, כגון לישתו ועריכתו של לחם הפנים, אינו טעון כלי:

וקרנותיהן. שהוא מדביק בצק לכל דופן כמין קרנים, ואורך הקרן יוצא ארבע אצבעות:

רבי יהודה אומר שלא תטעה. בין שתי הלחם ללחם הפנים בין בשיעור אורך ורוחב בין בשיעור הקרנות. בשתי הלחם ארכו שבעה ורחבו ארבעה וקרנותיו ד׳ אצבעות. וסימנך זד״ד. ולחם הפנים ארכו עשרה ורחבו חמשה וקרנותיו שבע אצבעות. וסימנך יה״ז. ודרכו של ר׳ יהודה לתת סימנים, כמו דצ״ך עד״ש באח״ב:

שיהא לו פנים. דפנות. [שיהא לו פינים זויות] והן הן הקרנים: