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Mishnayos Megillah Perek 1 Mishnah 9

מגילה פרק א׳ משנה ט׳


The difference between a High Priest anointed with the oil of anointing, which was the method through which High Priests were consecrated until the oil was sequestered toward the end of the First Temple period, and one consecrated by donning multiple garments unique to the High Priest, which was the practice during the Second Temple period, is only that the latter does not bring the bull that comes for transgression of any of the mitzvot. An anointed High Priest who unwittingly issued an erroneous halakhic ruling and acted upon that ruling, and transgressed a mitzva whose unwitting violation renders one liable to bring a sin-offering, is obligated to bring a sin-offering unique to one in his position. The difference between a High Priest currently serving in that capacity and a former High Priest, who temporarily filled that position when the High Priest was unfit for service, is only with regard to the bull brought by the High Priest on Yom Kippur, and the tenth of an ephah meal-offering brought daily by the High Priest. Each of these offerings is brought only by the current High Priest, and not by a former High Priest.

אֵין בֵּין כֹּהֵן מָשׁוּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה לִמְרֻבֶּה בְגָדִים אֶלָּא פַּר הַבָּא עַל כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת. אֵין בֵּין כֹּהֵן מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְכֹהֵן שֶׁעָבַר אֶלָּא פַּר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה:


מרובה בגדים – Kohanim who served during the Second Temple [period], and even during the First Temple [period] after Isaiah and beyond, when the oil flask was hidden during his days, and there no [distinguishing features of] High Priests other than only the wearing of [multiple outfits of] clothing.

פר הבא על כל המצות – An Kohen anointed [with the anointing oil] who taught a leniency in a matter whose willful violation [is punished] by means of extirpation, and he acted according to his teaching, he brings a bullock, as it is written (Leviticus 4:3 – “If it is the anointed priest who has incurred guilt, so that blame falls upon the people, he shall offer for the sin of which he is guilty a bull of the herd without blemish as a purification offering to the LORD.”) if he is an anointed Kohen.

כהן המשמש – A High Priest that something occurred to him to make him unfit for service [in the Temple] and they appointed another in his place and his blemish passed and he returned to his Divine Service, and they removed the one who came in his place, the first one is called “the attending/serving [Priest]” and the second [is called] “removed.”

אלא פר יוה"כ – for it is impossible to bring two [sacrifices]. And similarly with the tenth of the Ephah, the cakes of the High Priest’s inauguration (see Mishnah Menahot, 11:3) for each day, since it is impossible to bring two [at once]. But regarding all other things, both are equivalent. If he comes to offer incense or any other Divine Service, he makes uses of the eight [different sets of] garments. And both of them are commanded about [marrying] a virgin and warned about [not marrying] a widow. And they offer incense when they are grieving [the loss of a kinsman prior to his/her burial].

למרובה בבגדים. כהנים ששמשו בבית שני, ואף בבית ראשון מן יאשיהו ואילך שנגנזה צלוחית של שמן המשחה בימיו, ולא היו כהנים גדולים אלא בלבישת הבגדים בלבד:

פר הבא על כל המצות. כהן משוח שהורה היתר בדבר שזדונו כרת, ועשה כהוראתו, מביא פר כדכתיב (ויקרא ד׳:ג׳) ואם הכהן המשיח:

כהן המשמש. כהן גדול שאירע בו פסול ומינו אחר תחתיו ועבר פסולו וחזר לעבודתו, והעבירו הבא תחתיו. הראשון קרוי משמש, והשני עבר:

אלא פר יוה״כ. שא״א להביא שתים. וכן עשירית האיפה חביתי כהן גדול שבכל יום שא״א להביא שתים. הא לכל שאר דברים זה וזה שוין. אם בא להקטיר או לעבוד שום עבודה משמש בשמנה בגדים. ושניהם מצווין על הבתולה, ומוזהרים על האלמנה. ומקריבין אוננין: