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Mishnayos Megillah Perek 1 Mishnah 5

מגילה פרק א׳ משנה ה׳


The previous mishna concluded with the formula: The difference between…is only, thereby distinguishing between the halakhot in two different cases. The following mishnayot employ the same formula and distinguish between the halakhot in cases unrelated to Purim and the Megilla. The first is: The difference between Festivals and Shabbat with regard to the labor prohibited on those days is only in preparing food alone. It is permitted to cook and bake in order to prepare food on Festivals; however, on Shabbat it is prohibited. The difference between Shabbat and Yom Kippur with regard to the labor prohibited on those days is only that in this case, i.e., Shabbat, its intentional desecration is punishable at the hand of Man, as he is stoned by a court based on the testimony of witnesses who forewarned the transgressor; and in that case, i.e., Yom Kippur, its intentional desecration is punishable at the hand of God, with karet.

אֵין בֵּין יוֹם טוֹב לְשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ בִּלְבָד. אֵין בֵּין שַׁבָּת לְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים אֶלָּא שֶׁזֶּה זְדוֹנוֹ בִּידֵי אָדָם וְזֶה זְדוֹנוֹ בְּכָרֵת:


אין בין יו"ט לשבת אלא אוכל נפש בלבד – [See Mishnah Betzah, 5:2] Our Mishnah is according to [the teachings of] the School of Shammai, who say (Betza 12a), we don’t take out a young child or a Lulav or a Torah scroll into the public domain, since they lack the need for food preparation. And this is not the Halakha, but only according to the words of the School of Hillel, who say that since we are permitted to bring something out for the purposes of eating, it is also permitted to take them out not for the sake of eating. And there are also other things that are prohibited on Shabbat but permitted on Yom Tov/Jewish holy days, even though they are not for the sake of food preparation, such as [see Mishnah Betzah, 5:1] throwing down fruit (if it is about to rain) [that was spread out to dry on the roof] through a trap door on a Jewish holy day, but not on Shabbat.

שזה זדונו בידי אדם – [if one violates a Mitzvah willfully] on Shabbat , which has death by a Jewish court.

אין בין יו״ט לשבת אלא אוכל נפש בלבד. מתניתין ב״ש היא [ביצה יב.] דאמרי אין מוציאין את הקטן ולא את הלולב ולא את הס״ת לרשות הרבים כיון שאין בהם צורך אוכל נפש. ואין כן הלכה אלא כדברי בית הלל דאמרי מתוך שהותרה הוצאה לצורך אכילה הותרה נמי שלא לצורך אכילה. ואיכא נמי מילי אחרינא שאסורים בשבת ומותרים ביו״ט אע״פ שאינם צורך אוכל נפש, כגון משילין פירות דרך ארובה ביו״ט, אבל לא בשבת:

שזה זדונו בידי אדם. שבת יש בה מיתת ב״ד: