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Mishnayos Makkos Perek 3 Mishnah 9

מכות פרק ג׳ משנה ט׳


Apropos the case where one receives several sets of lashes for performing a single action, the mishna continues: There is one who plows a single furrow and is liable to receive lashes for violating eight prohibitions. How so? For plowing with an ox and a donkey, in violation of the prohibition: “You shall not plow with an ox and a donkey together” (Deuteronomy 22:10); and they are consecrated, and therefore he is guilty of misuse of consecrated property; and he is plowing diverse kinds in a vineyard; and it is during the Sabbatical Year, when it is prohibited to work the land; and it is on a Festival, when plowing is a prohibited labor; and he is both a priest and a nazirite and is performing the plowing in a place of impurity imparted by a corpse, which is prohibited for both a priest (see Leviticus 21:1) and a nazirite (see Numbers 6:6). Ḥananya ben Ḥakhinai says: If he was wearing a garment consisting of diverse kinds of wool and linen while plowing he is also flogged for violating that prohibition. The Sages said to him: That is not a prohibition in the same category as the others, as it is not connected to the act of plowing. Ḥananya ben Ḥakhinai said to them: According to that criterion, the fact that he is a nazirite is also not in the same category, as a nazirite and a priest are not flogged for plowing; rather, they are flogged for contracting impurity imparted by a corpse.

יֵשׁ חוֹרֵשׁ תֶּלֶם אֶחָד וְחַיָּב עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם שְׁמֹנָה לָאוִין, הַחוֹרֵשׁ בְּשׁוֹר וַחֲמוֹר, וְהֵן מֻקְדָּשִׁים, בְּכִלְאַיִם בַּכֶּרֶם, וּבַשְּׁבִיעִית, וְיוֹם טוֹב, וְכֹהֵן וְנָזִיר בְּבֵית הַטֻּמְאָה. חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן חֲכִינַאי אוֹמֵר, אַף הַלּוֹבֵשׁ כִּלְאָיִם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵינוֹ הַשֵּׁם. אָמַר לָהֶם, אַף לֹא הַנָּזִיר הוּא הַשֵּׁם:


תלם אחת – one row of a field (when one ploughs one furrow)

וחייב עליו משום שמונה לאוין – and he had been warned on all of them.

והן מקודשים – the ox which is dedicated for sacrifice, and a donkey which is of the offerings of Temple repair (see Mishnah Temurah, Chapter 1, Mishnah 6). And the ox has the negative commandment [associated with it] of (Deuteronomy 15:19): “you must not work your firstling ox,” and regarding the donkey, there is a warning of religious sacrilege and we derive it from the [repetition of the word]: חטא "חטא" – from Priest’s Due/Terumah, and the negative commandment (Deuteronomy 22:10): “You shall not plow with an ox and an ass together.” We have here three negative commandments.

וכלאים בכרם – on account that he ploughs, he covers up the wheat and barley and pomace of kernels (or shell of grapes) in the dust, and transgresses because of [the Biblical verse] (Deuteronomy 22:9): “You shall not sow your vineyard with a second kind of seed,” and we have established that he who covers up mixed seeds is flogged, and even though he did not sow them, but ploughs dust on them, that is four negative commandments. But Maimonides thought that mixed seeds in a vineyard is two negative commandments: one because of mixed seeds, which are two kinds of seeds – wheat and barley, and one because of mixed seeds in a vineyard because of the shell of grapes, but the Holy Things of an ox and a donkey are not considered other than being one negative commandment.

שביעית – (Leviticus 25:4): “A sabbath of the LORD: you shall not sow your field…”

ויו"ט – (Leviticus 23:36): “You shall not work at your occupations” (see also: Leviticus 23: 7,21,25 for similar usage of this phrase).

כהן ונזיר – and he is in a cemetery, and he is transgressing (Leviticus 21:2): “None shall defile himself for any [dead] person among his kin” that is mentioned in [the chapter of the laws concerning] the Kohanim (Leviticus chapter 21)., and (Numbers 6:6): “He shall not go in where there is a dead person” which is stated in regard to the Nazirite (Numbers, chapter 6).

אף הלובש כלאים – at the time when he is ploughing.

אינו מן השם – the negative of commandment of wearing [garments made] of mixed seeds is not for the one who ploughs a furrow.

אף כהן ונזיר – which is considered a negative commandment, is not for ploughing, but for walking to an impure place. However, the first Tanna considers them included in the negative commandments of the person who ploughs a furrow, because he cannot plow with oxen other than if he walks with them and leads them.

תלם אחת. שורה אחת של שדה.

וחייב עליו משום שמונה לאוין. והוא שהתרו בו על כולם:

והן מוקדשים. שור קדשי מזבח, וחמור קדשי בדק הבית. ובשור אית ביה לאו דלא תעבוד בבכור שורך, ובחמור אזהרה דמעילה ונפקא לן חטא חטא מתרומה, ולאו דלא תחרוש בשור ובחמור יחדיו, הרי כאן שלשה לאוין:

וכלאים בכרם. על ידי שחורש מחפה חטה ושעורה וחרצן בעפר, ועובר משום לא תזרע כרמך כלאים. דקיי״ל המחפה בכלאים לוקה, אע״פ שלא זרען, אלא חפה עפר עליהן, הרי זה ארבעה לאוין. והרמב״ם חשב כלאים בכרם, שני לאוין. אחד משום כלאי זרעים, שהן שני מיני זרעים, חטה ושעורה, וחד משום כלאי הכרם בשביל החרצן, ולא חשיב מוקדשים של שור וחמור אלא ללאו אחד:

שביעית. שבת לה׳ שדך לא תזרע:

ויו״ט. כל מלאכת עבודה לא תעשו:

כהן ונזיר. והוא בבית הקברות. וקעבר לנפש לא יטמא בעמיו האמור בכהנים, ועל נפש מת לא יבוא האמור בנזיר:

אף הלובש כלאים. בשעה שהיה חורש:

אינו מן השם. לאו של לבישת כלאים אינו בשביל התלם:

אף כהן ונזיר דחשבתו לאו, אינו בשביל חרישה אלא בשביל הליכה למקום טומאה. ומיהו ת''ק חשיב להו בכלל לאוי התלם, לפי שאינו יכול לחרוש בשוורים אא''כ הולך עמהם ומנהיגם: