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Mishnayos Makkos Perek 2 Mishnah 6

מכות פרק ב׳ משנה ו׳


Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Initially, either one who killed another unintentionally or one who killed another intentionally would hurry and flee to the cities of refuge, and the court in his city would send for him and would bring him from there to stand trial. For one who was found liable to receive the death penalty in court for intentional murder, the court would execute him, and for one who was not found liable to receive the death penalty, e.g., if they deemed that the death occurred due to circumstances beyond his control, they would free him. For one who was found liable to be exiled, the court would restore him to his place in the city of refuge, as it is stated: “And the congregation shall judge between the murderer and the blood redeemer…and the congregation shall restore him to his city of refuge, that he fled there” (Numbers 35:24–25), indicating that he had been in a city of refuge before his trial. The Torah states that an unintentional murderer is required to remain in the city of refuge to which he fled until the death of the High Priest. The mishna elaborates: With regard to High Priests, who were appointed in several different manners, one anointed with the anointing oil, which was the method through which High Priests were consecrated until the oil was sequestered toward the end of the First Temple period; and one consecrated by donning multiple garments, the eight vestments unique to the High Priest, which was the practice during the Second Temple period; and one who received a temporary appointment due to the unfitness of the serving High Priest, who departed from his anointment with the restoration of the serving High Priest to active service, their deaths facilitate the return of the murderer from the city of refuge to his home. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even the death of a priest anointed for war to address the soldiers (see Deuteronomy 20:1–7) facilitates the return of the murderer. The mishna continues: Therefore, the mothers of High Priests would provide those exiled to cities of refuge with sustenance and garments so that they would not pray that their sons would die.

רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּתְּחִלָּה, אֶחָד שׁוֹגֵג וְאֶחָד מֵזִיד מַקְדִּימִין לְעָרֵי מִקְלָט, וּבֵית דִּין שׁוֹלְחִין וּמְבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ מִשָּׁם. מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב מִיתָה בְּבֵית דִּין, הֲרָגוּהוּ. וְשֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַיֵּב מִיתָה, פְּטָרוּהוּ. מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב גָּלוּת, מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ לִמְקוֹמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר לה) וְהֵשִׁיבוּ אֹתוֹ הָעֵדָה אֶל עִיר מִקְלָטוֹ וְגוֹ'. אֶחָד מָשׁוּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וְאֶחָד הַמְרֻבֶּה בִבְגָדִים וְאֶחָד שֶׁעָבַר מִמְּשִׁיחָתוֹ, מַחֲזִירִין אֶת הָרוֹצֵחַ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף מְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה מַחֲזִיר אֶת הָרוֹצֵחַ. לְפִיכָךְ אִמּוֹתֵיהֶן שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים מְסַפְּקוֹת לָהֶן מִחְיָה וּכְסוּת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפַּלְּלוּ עַל בְּנֵיהֶם שֶׁיָּמוּתוּ. מִשֶּׁנִּגְמַר דִּינוֹ מֵת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ מֵת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וּמִנּוּ אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו, וּלְאַחַר מִכֵּן נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ, חוֹזֵר בְּמִיתָתוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי:


ואחד המרובה בגדים – since after the flask of anointing oil was hidden, he was not inaugurated to become the High Priest other than the wearing of eight garments.

ואחד שעבר ממשיחתו – that a nocturnal emission befell the High Priest on Yom Kippur and they appointed another n his place. With the death of all of those, he returns, even though the other one is alive, since “High Priest” is written three times in the portion.

רבי יהודה אומר: אף משוח מלחמה – Another Biblical verse is written (Numbers 35:32): “…enabling one to return to live on his land before the death of the priest.” But the Rabbis, since “High Priest” is not written in this verse, they don’t expound it. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

שלא יתפללו על בניהם שימותו – and they were negligent, for they should have requested for mercy on this generation that no religious offense should happen on them, and they did not request this.

משנגמר דינו – for exile, for when the proceedings were finished (i.e., the sentence was pronounced), and he is about to be exiled, it is as if he was exiled.

ואחד המרובה בבגדים. שאחר שנגנזה צלוחית של שמן המשחה לא היה מתחנך להיות כהן גדול אלא בלבישת שמונה בגדים:

ואחד שעבר ממשיחתו. שאירע קרי לכהן גדול ביום הכיפורים ומינו אחר תחתיו. במיתת כל אחד מאלו הוא חוזר, אע״פ שהאחר חי. דשלש פעמים כהן גדול כתיב בפרשה:

רבי יהודה אומר אף משוח מלחמה. דקרא אחרינא כתיב (במדבר ל״ה) לשוב לשבת בארץ עד מות הכהן. ורבנן, כיון דלא כתיב בההוא קרא הכהן הגדול לא דרשי ליה. והלכה כחכמים:

שלא יתפללו על בניהם שימותו. והם פשעו, שהיה להם לבקש רחמים על דורם שלא יארע בהן תקלה ולא בקשו:

משנגמר דינו. לגלות. דמשנגמר דינו ועומד לגלות כאילו גלה: