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Mishnayos Kesuvos Perek 9 Mishnah 2

כתובות פרק ט׳ משנה ב׳


With regard to one who died and left behind a wife, and a creditor to whom he owed money, and heirs, all of whom claim payment from his property, and he had a deposit or a loan in the possession of others, Rabbi Tarfon says: The deposit or the loan will be given to the weakest one of them, i.e., the one most in need of the money. Rabbi Akiva says: One is not merciful in judgment. If the halakha is that it belongs to one party, one follows the halakha and leaves aside considerations of mercy. Rather, the halakha is that the money will be given to the heirs, as all people who wish to exact payment from orphans require an oath before they collect their debt, but the heirs do not require an oath. They therefore have a more absolute right than the others to their father’s property.

מִי שֶׁמֵּת וְהִנִּיחַ אִשָּׁה וּבַעַל חוֹב וְיוֹרְשִׁין, וְהָיָה לוֹ פִקָּדוֹן אוֹ מִלְוֶה בְּיַד אֲחֵרִים, רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, יִנָּתְנוּ לַכּוֹשֵׁל שֶׁבָּהֶן. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵין מְרַחֲמִין בַּדִּין, אֶלָּא יִנָּתְנוּ לַיּוֹרְשִׁין, שֶׁכֻּלָּן צְרִיכִין שְׁבוּעָה וְאֵין הַיּוֹרְשִׁין צְרִיכִין שְׁבוּעָה:


ינתנו לכושל שבהן – there are those who interpret it as one whose promissory note was postdated (which is not disqualified necessarily by the Sages, provided that the lender was willing to accept it – as it presents no opportunity for defrauding other creditors) which is the weakest and with legal disadvantage of them all, for he cannot seize properties for a debt that precede it, and there are those who interpret that is for the Ketubah of a wife and it is called weak, and it is not her manner to return after the property of the dead and to request where he has land like the man. And even tough movables of orphans are not mortgaged to the creditor nor to the Ketubah of a woman, here, where they are not in their domain, he leaves them, Rabbi Tarfon holds that we remove them from the hand of the borrower or from the hand of the one holding the deposit and give them to creditor and for the Ketubah.

ינתנו ליורשים – possession does not take effect.

שכולן צריכין שבועה – for a person who comes to collect from the property of orphans, he should not collect without an oath, and all the while that they did not take an oath, we don’t known if they have anything against him; therefore, when the dead person dies, he orphans took possession of them and they are in their domain.

ינתנו לכושל שבהן. אית דמפרשי, למי ששטרו מאוחר, שהוא כושל וחלש שבכולן שאינו יכול לטרוף לקוחות הקודמים לו. ואית דמפרשי, לכתובת אשה, והיא קרויה כושל שאין דרכה לחזור אחר נכסי המת ולבקש היכן יש לו קרקע כמו האיש. ואע״ג דמטלטלי דיתמי לא משתעבדי לבעל חוב ולא לכתובת אשה, הכא דלאו ברשותייהו מנחי, סבירא לר׳ טרפון דמוציאין מיד הלוה או מיד שהפקדון אצלו ונותנין לבעל חוב ולכתובה:

ינתנו ליורשים. ולא מהניא תפיסה:

שכולן צריכין שבועה. שהבא ליפרע מנכסי יתומים לא יפרע אלא בשבועה וכל זמן שלא נשבעו אין אנו יודעים אם יש להם עליו כלום, הלכך משמת המת זכו בהן היורשים וברשותן הן: