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Mishnayos Kesuvos Perek 3 Mishnah 1

כתובות פרק ג׳ משנה א׳


These are the cases of young women for whom there is a fine paid to their fathers by one who rapes them: One who engages in intercourse with a mamzeret, or with a Gibeonite woman [netina], who are given [netunim] to the service of the people and the altar (see Joshua 9:27), or with a Samaritan woman [kutit]. In addition, the same applies to one who engages in intercourse with a female convert, or with a captive woman, or with a maidservant, provided that the captives were ransomed, or that the converts converted, or that the maidservants were liberated when they were less than three years and one day old, as only in that case do they maintain the presumptive status of a virgin. Similarly, one who engages in intercourse with his sister, i.e., he rapes her, or with his father’s sister, or with his mother’s sister, or with his wife’s sister, or with his brother’s wife, or with his father’s brother’s wife after they divorced, or with a menstruating woman, there is a fine paid. Although there is karet for engaging in relations with any of the women enumerated in this list, one is liable to pay the fine because there is no court-imposed capital punishment. In cases where there is a court-imposed death penalty, the rapist would be exempt from paying the fine.

אֵלּוּ נְעָרוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן קְנָס. הַבָּא עַל הַמַּמְזֶרֶת, וְעַל הַנְּתִינָה, וְעַל הַכּוּתִית. הַבָּא עַל הַגִּיּוֹרֶת, וְעַל הַשְּׁבוּיָה, וְעַל הַשִּׁפְחָה, שֶׁנִּפְדּוּ וְשֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרוּ וְשֶׁנִּשְׁתַּחְרְרוּ פְּחוּתוֹת מִבְּנוֹת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד. הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹתוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אָבִיו, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִמּוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אֲחִי אָבִיו, וְעַל הַנִּדָּה, יֵשׁ לָהֶן קְנָס. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן בְּהִכָּרֵת, אֵין בָּהֶן מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין:


אלו נערות – for even though they are ineligible/invalid [as marriageable parners], they are assessed a fine. If a man perpetrated violence against one of them, he gives to her father fifty silver [coins].

הנתינה – from the Gibeonites and on account that Joshua made them choppers of wood and water carriers, they are called Netinim, and they forbidden to enter into the community [of Israel].

על הכותית – This Tanna/teacher holds that Kutim are “lion-proselytes,” (i.e., proselytes from mere fear, with reference to II Kings 17:25) and are considered as heathens.

פחותות מבת שלש שנים – that is they have the legal presumption of being virgins, even though they had intercourse during captivity or while in a gentile status, their virginity returns.

ועל אשת אחיו ועל אשת אחי אביו – that she was betrothed to one of them or divorced from betrothal, and she was still a virgin.

שאע"פ הן בהכרת אין בהן מיתת ב"ד – and extirpation does not exempt from payment/indemnity, and these words [apply] where there had been no warning but if they ad been warning, one is exempt from the fine, for hold that those who are liable for extirpation who had been warned are flogged, for no one is flogged and pays a fine.

אלו נערות. שאף על פי שהן פסולות יש להן קנס. אם אנס אדם אחת מהן נותן לאביה חמשים כסף:

הנתינה. מן הגבעונים. ועל שם שנתנם יהושע חוטבי עצים ושואבי מים נקראים נתינים. והם אסורים לבא בקהל:

ועל הכותית. האי תנא סבר כותים גירי אריות הם וכגוים הם חשובים:

פחותות מבת שלש שנים. דבחזקת בתולות הן, שאף על פי שנבעלו בשביה או בגיותן, בתוליהן חוזרים:

ועל אשת אחיו ועל אשת אחי אביו. שנתקדשה לאחד מהן ונתגרשה מן האירוסין, ועדיין בתולה היא:

שאע״פ שהן בהכרת אין בהן מיתת ב״ד. וכרת אינו פוטר מן התשלומין. והני מלי, שלא היתה שם התראה. אבל אם היתה שם התראה פטור מן הקנס, דקיי״ל כל חייבי כריתות שהתרו בהן לוקין, ואין אדם לוקה ומשלם: