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Mishnayos Kesuvos Perek 2 Mishnah 3

כתובות פרק ב׳ משנה ג׳


With regard to the witnesses who said in their testimony to ratify their signatures in a document: We signed the document and this is our handwriting; however, we were compelled to sign, or we were minors when we signed, or we were disqualified witnesses, e.g., we are relatives of one of the parties, they are deemed credible. Since the document is ratified on the basis of their testimony, it is likewise invalidated on the basis of their testimony. However, if there are other witnesses who testify that it is their handwriting, or if their handwriting emerges on a document from another place, enabling confirmation of their signatures by comparing the two documents, then the witnesses who signed the document are not deemed credible. The document is not invalidated based on their testimony, because ratification of the document is not dependent on their testimony, as their signatures can be authenticated independently.

הָעֵדִים שֶׁאָמְרוּ כְּתַב יָדֵינוּ הוּא זֶה, אֲבָל אֲנוּסִים הָיִינוּ, קְטַנִּים הָיִינוּ, פְּסוּלֵי עֵדוּת הָיִינוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נֶאֱמָנִים. וְאִם יֵשׁ עֵדִים שֶׁהוּא כְתַב יָדָם אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה כְתַב יָדָם יוֹצֵא מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר, אֵינָן נֶאֱמָנִין:


אנוסים היינו – compulsion at the pain of death lest he kill him, but compulsion of money, lest he take his money [from him] and all the more so, if he said to him: “for most of the money that he gave us,” they are not believed, for no one incriminates himself (i.e., his testimony against himself has no legal effect), for a person is close to himself, and is not believed about himself, neither for acquittal nor for conviction. And similarly, those who are ineligible for testimony, which is on account of nearness but on account of transgression, they are not believed.

יוצא ממקום אחר – inscribed in another document that is in the possession of the Jewish court , and this same document came before us with this one and the writing of the signatories are similar one to the other.

אנוסים היינו. אונס נפשות שמא יהרגנו. אבל אונס ממון שמא יקח ממונו, וכ״ש אם אמרו בשביל רוב ממון שנתן לנו, אינן נאמנין, דאין אדם משים עצמו רשע, דאדם קרוב אצל עצמו ואינו נאמן על עצמו לא לזכות ולא לחובה. וכן פסולי עדות היינו, מחמת קורבה. אבל מחמת עבירה אינן נאמנים:

יוצא ממקום אחר. חתומים בשטר אחר שהוחזק בב״ד ובא אותו שטר לפנינו עם זה וכתב חותמן דומין זה לשל זה: