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Mishnayos Kerisos Perek 1 Mishnah 1

כריתות פרק א׳ משנה א׳


There are thirty-six cases in the Torah with regard to which one who performs a prohibited action intentionally is liable to receive excision from the World-to-Come [karet]. They are: One who engages in sexual intercourse with his mother; or with the wife of his father, even if she is not his mother; or with his daughter-in-law. The same punishment is imposed on a man who engages in intercourse with another male [hazekhur], or who copulates with an animal; and a woman who brings an animal upon her to engage in bestiality. The same punishment is imposed on one who engages in intercourse with a woman and her daughter, or with a married woman. The same punishment is imposed on one who engages in intercourse with his sister, or with his father’s sister, or with his mother’s sister, or with his wife’s sister, or with his brother’s wife, or with the wife of his father’s brother, or with the wife of his mother’s brother, or with a menstruating woman. And these too are liable to receive karet: One who blasphemes the name of Heaven, and one who worships an idol, and one who gives of his children to Molekh (see Leviticus 20:1–5), and a necromancer, and one who desecrates Shabbat. And the same is the punishment of one who is ritually impure who ate sacrificial food; and one who enters the Temple while ritually impure; and one who eats forbidden fat, or consumes blood, or eats meat left over from an offering after the time allotted for its consumption [notar], or eats meat of an offering that was sacrificed with the intent to consume it after its designated time [piggul]; and one who slaughters offerings and offers them up outside the Temple. And these too are liable to receive karet: One who eats leavened bread on Passover, and one who eats or performs prohibited labor on Yom Kippur. And the same is the punishment of one who blends the anointing oil according to the specifications of the oil prepared by Moses in the wilderness (see Exodus 30:22–33); and one who blends the incense according to the specifications of the incense used in the Temple service for purposes other than use in the Temple; and one who applies the anointing oil to his skin. And one is liable to receive karet for failure to fulfill the mitzva of bringing the Paschal offering and the mitzva of circumcision, which unlike the cases of prohibitions enumerated in the mishna, are positive mitzvot.

שְׁלשִׁים וָשֵׁשׁ כְּרֵתוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה. הַבָּא עַל הָאֵם, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת הָאָב, וְעַל הַכַּלָּה, הַבָּא עַל הַזְּכוּר, וְעַל הַבְּהֵמָה, וְהָאִשָּׁה הַמְבִיאָה אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה עָלֶיהָ, הַבָּא עַל אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ, הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹתוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אָבִיו, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִמּוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אֲחִי אָבִיו, וְעַל הַנִּדָּה, הַמְגַדֵּף, וְהָעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְהַנּוֹתֵן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ, וּבַעַל אוֹב, הַמְחַלֵּל אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, וְטָמֵא שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְהַבָּא לַמִּקְדָּשׁ טָמֵא, הָאוֹכֵל חֵלֶב, וְדָם, נוֹתָר, וּפִגּוּל, הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְהַמַּעֲלֶה בַּחוּץ, הָאוֹכֵל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, וְהָאוֹכֵל וְהָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, הַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן, וְהַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת, וְהַסָּךְ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה. הַפֶּסַח וְהַמִּילָה בְּמִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה:


שלשים ושש כריתות – to someone who transgresses willfully without warning [by two witnesses]

הבא על אשה ובתה – or the daughter of her daughter or the daughter of her son is within this [general category], and similarly, his daughter and the daughter of his daughter and the daughter of his son, his mother-in-law and the mother of his mother-in-law and the mother of his father-in-law, all are within this [general category].

והעובד עבודה זרה – like the manner of their worship, or one who slaughters a sacrifice, or one who offers incense or offers a libation and prostrates oneself, even if it is not the manner of their worship as such.

בעל אוב – and the soothsayer/charmer is included within this [general category], for both were mentioned in one negative [commandment], and the Tanna/teacher [of the Mishnah] took [the term] אוב/necromancy, which is the first one [mentioned] in Scripture.

והמחלל את השבת – with one of the forty-minus-one primary forms of work and their derivatives.

נותר – holy things after their time has passed.

פגול – Holy things that he thought to consume them outside of their [appropriate] time [period] or outside of their [appropriate] place.

השוחט – [he who slaughters] holy things outside [of the Temple court] is liable, even though he had not offered them up, as it written (Leviticus 17:4): “and does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, [before the LORD’s Tabernacle;] bloodguilt shall be imputed to that man: he has shed blood, that man shall be cut off [from among his people].”

ומעלה – Is also by extirpation, as it is written (Leviticus 17:8-9): “[Say to them further: If anyone of the house of Israel or of the strangers who reside among them] offers a burnt offering or a sacrifice, (9) and does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting,” but if he slaughtered it and offered it unwittingly, he is liable for two sin-offerings.

והמפטם את שמן המשחה – with the weight of the frankincense and in the measurement of the oil, like that which Moses did in the wilderness. But he made it to anoint with it. But when one pounds spices for practice or to transmit it to the community, he is not liable.

והמפטם את הקטורת – eleven ingredients of incense – if he took from each one of them according to its determined weight in the words of the Sages, and mixed them in the manner that they would mix the incense that they offer in the Temple, he would be liable for extirpation. And he would make it in order to smell it. But if he did it just for practice or to transmit it to the community, he is exempt.

והסך בשמן המשחה – that Moses did, that was not for the needs of the priesthood and the kingship, he is liable. For they would not give from that oil other lthan upon the head of the High Priest, and even if he was the son of the High Priest, they would anoint him with the same soil that Moses made in the wilderness. And from it, we anoint the kings of the House of David. But we don’t anoint the king the son of a king, if there had not been there a disagreement, like he anointed Solomon because of the dispute with Adoniyah, or Joash because of the dispute with Ataliah and Yehoahaz because of Yehoyakim his brother who was older than him. But the anointing of the priests occurs when they pour from the oil on his head and anoint between his eyebrows like the Greek KI. But the anointing of the kings is like a crown.

הפסח והמילה במצות עשה – and they have extirpation, but there is no sacrifice for their inadvertent [transgression]. But all of these are negative commandments, and they are liable for a sacrifice for their inadvertent transgression, but the sacrifice is not other than for a negative commandment. For concerning the sacrifice, it is written (Leviticus 4:22): “who incurs guilt by doing unwittingly any of the things which by the commandment of the LORD his God ought not to be done.”

שלשים ושש כריתות. לעובר במזיד בלא התראה:

הבא על אשה ובתה. ובת בתה ובת בנה בכלל. וכן בתו ובת בתו ובת בנו, חמותו ואם חמותו ואם חמיו, כולם בכלל זה:

המגדף. מברך את השם:

והעובד עבודה זרה. כדרך עבודתה. או המזבח והמקטר והמנסך והמשתחוה אפילו שאין דרך עבודתה בכך:

בעל אוב. וידעוני בכלל. ששניהם בלאו אחד נאמרו, ותנא נקט אוב שהוא ראשון במקרא:

והמחלל את השבת. באחת מאבות מלאכות ארבעים חסר אחת ותולדותיהן:

נותר. קדשים לאחר שעבר זמנן:

פגול. קדשים שחשב לאכלן חוץ לזמנן או חוץ למקומן:

השוחט. קדשים בחוץ חייב, אע״פ שלא העלן. דכתיב (ויקרא י״ז:ד׳) ואל פתח אהל מועד לא הביאו דם יחשב לאיש ההוא דם שפך ונכרת:

ומעלה. נמי בכרת, דכתיב (שם) אשר יעלה עולה או זבח ואל פתח אוהל מועד לא יביאנו. ואם שחט והעלה בשוגג, חייב שתי חטאות:

והמפטם את שמן המשחה. במשקל סממנים ובמדת השמן כמו שעשאו משה במדבר. והוא שיעשנו לסוך בו, אבל המפטמו להתלמד או למסרו לצבור אינו חייב:

והמפטם את הקטורת. אחד עשר סממני הקטורת אם לקח מכל אחד מהם כפי משקלו הקצוב בדברי חכמים ועירבם כדרך שהיו מערבים הקטורת שמקטירים בבית המקדש, חייב כרת. והוא שיעשנו להריח בה, אבל עשאה להתלמד או למסרה לצבור, פטור:

והסך בשמן המשחה שעשה משה, שלא לצורך כהונה ומלכות, חייב. שלא היו נותנים מאותו שמן אלא על ראש הכן גדול, ואפילו היה בן כהן גדול מושחים אותו באותו שמן שעשה משה במדבר. וממנו מושחים מלכי בית דוד. ואין מושחין מלך בן מלך אם לא היה שם מחלוקת, כמו שמשחי שלמה מפני מחלוקתו של אדוניהו, ויואש מפני מחלוקתו של עתליהו, ויהואחז מפני יהויקים אחיו שהיה גדול ממנו. ומשיחת הכהנים היא שיוצקים מן השמן על ראשו ומושחין בין גבות עיניו כמין כ״י יונית. ומשיחת המלכים כמין נזר:

הפסח והמילה במצות עשה. ויש בהן כרת, ואין קרבן על שגגתן. אבל כולהו הנך לא תעשה נינהו, וחייבים על שגגתן קרבן, דאין קרבן אלא על לאו. דגבי קרבן כתיב (ויקרא ד׳:י״ג) ועשה אחת מכל מצות ה׳ אשר לא תיעשינה: