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Mishnayos Gittin Perek 9 Mishnah 8

גיטין פרק ט׳ משנה ח׳


With regard to a bill of divorce that was written in Hebrew and its witnesses signed in Greek, or that was written in Greek and its witnesses signed in Hebrew, or in which one witness signed in Hebrew and one witness signed in Greek, or if a bill of divorce has the writing of a scribe, and the scribe identifies his handwriting, and one witness verifies his signature, it is valid as though two witnesses testified to ratify their signatures. As for the wording of the signature, if a witness signed: So-and-so, witness, without mentioning his father’s name, it is valid. Similarly, if he did not write his name and instead wrote: Son of so-and-so, witness, it is valid. If he wrote: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, but did not write the word witness, it is valid. And this is what the scrupulous people of Jerusalem would do, i.e., they would sign without the word witness. As for the names of the husband and wife, if the scribe wrote his surname [ḥanikhato] or nickname and her surname or nickname, it is valid. With regard to a bill of divorce that the husband was compelled by the court to write and give his wife, if he was compelled by a Jewish court it is valid, but if he was compelled by gentiles it is invalid. But with regard to gentiles they may beat him at the request of the Jewish court and say to him: Do what the Jews are telling you, and it is a valid divorce.

גֵּט שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ עִבְרִית וְעֵדָיו יְוָנִית, יְוָנִית וְעֵדָיו עִבְרִית, עֵד אֶחָד עִבְרִי וְעֵד אֶחָד יְוָנִי, כָּתַב סוֹפֵר וְעֵד, כָּשֵׁר. אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. בֶּן אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי, וְלֹא כָתַב עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. וְכָךְ הָיוּ נְקִיֵּי הַדַּעַת שֶׁבִּירוּשָׁלַיִם עוֹשִׂין. כָּתַב חֲנִיכָתוֹ וַחֲנִיכָתָהּ, כָּשֵׁר. גֵּט מְעֻשֶּׂה, בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, כָּשֵׁר. וּבְגוֹיִם, פָּסוּל. וּבְגוֹיִם, חוֹבְטִין אוֹתוֹ וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ עֲשֵׂה מַה שֶּׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים לְךָ, וְכָשֵׁר:


כתב סופר ועד – the scribe affixed his signature as a witness , for they had two witnesses, and our Mishnah comes to teach us that we don’t suspect lest the husband did not command the scribe to affix his signature but said to two [individuals]: “say to the scribe and he will write,” and to so-and-so and another person [will be] witnesses and they will affix their signatures to it, and these witnesses were suspect and put to the shame by the scribe who would say: “I am not valid in his (i.e., the husband’s) eyes and I will affix my signature to it without the permission of the husband.” To that we do not suspect.

חניכתו – the accompanying name of the family

מעושה – with force

בישראל כשר – if they forced him in court, such as all of those where they force him to divorce, or that she was forbidden to him, and if they forced him inappropriately, it is invalid, and disqualifies to marry into the priesthood because of the slight resemblance to a Jewish bill of divorce

ובנכרי – according to law, it is invalid and disqualifies from marrying into the priesthood; and in appropriate, even it does not have the slightest resemblance to a Jewish bill of divorce (by which the woman concerned might be precluded from marrying a Kohen); and whomever is liable to give a Jewish bill of divorce according to the law, and there is no power in the Jewish judges to force him, but when the gentile authorities bind him over and say: do as the Israelites tell you, and he gives the Jewish bill of divorce according to the judges of Israel.

כתב סופר ועד. חתם סופר ועד. דהוי להו שני עדים. ואשמעינן מתניתין דלא חיישינן שמא הבעל לא צווז לחתום לסופר, אלא אמר לשנים אמרו לסופר ויכתוב, ולפלוני ופלוני עדים ויחתומו, וחשו הנך עדים לכסופא דספרא שיאמר איני בעיניו כשר לעדות, ואחתמווזו בלא רשותו דבעל. להא לא חיישינן:

חניכתו. שם לווי של משפחה:

מעושה. בחזקה:

בישראל כשר. אם אנסוהו בדין. כגון כל הנך דכופין להוציא, או שהיתה אסורה לו. ואם אנסוהו שלא כדין, פסול. ופוסל מן הכהונה, משום ריח גט:

ובנכרי. כדין, פסול, ופוסל מן הכהונה. שלא כדין, אפילו ריח גט אין בו. ומי שחייב ליתן גט מן הדין ואין כח בדייני ישראל לכופו, חובטין אותו ע״י נכרים, שאומרים עשה מה שישראל אומר לך, ונותן הגט על פי דייני ישראל: