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Mishnayos Gittin Perek 3 Mishnah 7

גיטין פרק ג׳ משנה ז׳


The mishna continues the discussion of the presumption that a person remains alive. With regard to one who lends money to a priest, or to a Levite, or to a poor person, with the understanding that he will separate their portion of the teruma and tithes from his produce on the basis of that money, i.e., he will subtract from the debt owed by the priest or Levite the value of the teruma and tithes separated from the produce, he may separate the teruma and tithes from his produce on the basis of that money with the presumption that they are still alive, and he need not be concerned that perhaps the priest or the Levite died in the interim, or that the poor person became rich and is no longer eligible to be given the poor man’s tithe. The priest or Levite benefits from this arrangement, as he receives his gifts up front in the form of a loan. The Israelite benefits in that he does not need to seek out a priest or Levite each time he has produce from which he must separate teruma and tithes. If in fact they died, then he must obtain permission from the heirs in order to continue the arrangement. However, if he lent money to the deceased, and he stipulated in the presence of the court that the debt would be repaid in this manner, then he does not need to obtain permission from the heirs.

הַמַּלְוֶה מָעוֹת אֶת הַכֹּהֵן וְאֶת הַלֵּוִי וְאֶת הֶעָנִי לִהְיוֹת מַפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן מֵחֶלְקָן, מַפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהֵן קַיָּמִין, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא מֵת הַכֹּהֵן אוֹ הַלֵּוִי אוֹ הֶעֱשִׁיר הֶעָנִי. מֵתוּ, צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁין. אִם הִלְוָן בִּפְנֵי בֵית דִּין, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַיּוֹרְשִׁים:


להיות מפריש עליהן מחלקן – When he separates out the Terumah/heave-offering (which goes to the Kohen) , he should [first] sell it, he should detain the money to himself on account of his own obligation that he has towards the Kohen/priest. And the first tithe and second tithe he should withhold [them] and eat it for the obligation that he has towards the Levite and the poor, but he (the Levite) separates out from the first tithe [that he has received] the heave-offering (of one-tenth) [that he is required to give to the Kohen/priest]. But if he is accustomed to give his heave-offerings and tithes to this particular Kohen or particular Levite or the poor person who lent to them, he does not need to transfer to them their tithes and heave-offerings through another person, but he takes them for himself immediately after he has separated them out. But if he was accustomed to give his heave-offerings and tithes to others, he may not withhold them through his obligation, until he takes possession of them through another [Kohen or Levite] first and thereafter he should go back and take them as part of his obligatory [gift].

צריך ליטול רשות מן היורשים – That inherited from them property that had been mortgaged to a creditor, he must take permission from them if they want to repay this loan through these heave-offerings and tithes [that they have received], lest they wish to take their [priestly/Levitical] gifts and to repay their hereditary loans from another place.

להיות מפריש עליהן מחלקן. כשיפריש התרומה ימכרנה ויעכב הדמים לעצמו בשביל חובו שיש לו על הכהן. ומעשר ראשון ומעשר עני יעכב ויאכל בשביל החוב שיש לו על הלוי ועל העני. אלא שמפריש ממעשר ראשון תרומת מעשר לכהן. ואם הוא רגיל ליתן תרומותיו ומעשרותיו לזה הכהן או הלוי או העני שהלוה להן, אין צריך לזכות להם מעשרותיו ותרומותיו על יד אחר, אלא לוקחן לעצמו מיד אחר שיפרישם. אבל אם רגיל ליתן תרומותיו ומעשרותיו לאחרים, אינו יכול לעכבן בחובו, עד שיזכה להם ע״י אחר תחילה, ואח״כ יחזור ויטלם בחובו:

צריך ליטול רשות מן היורשים. שירשו מהם קרקע משועבדת לבעל חוב, צריך ליטול מהם רשות אם רוצים לפרוע חוב זה מתרומות ומעשרות הללו, דשמא רוצים הם ליקח מתנותיהן ולפרוע חוב מורישם ממקום אחר: