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Mishnayos Eruvin Perek 6 Mishnah 2

עירובין פרק ו׳ משנה ב׳


Rabban Gamliel said: There was an incident involving a certain Sadducee who lived with us in the same alleyway in Jerusalem, who renounced his rights to the alleyway before Shabbat. And Father said to us: Hurry and take out your utensils to the alleyway to establish possession of it, before he changes his mind and takes out his own utensils so as to reclaim his rights, in which case he would render it prohibited for you to use the entire alleyway. Rabbi Yehuda says: Rabban Gamliel’s father spoke to them with a different formulation, saying: Hurry and do whatever you must do in the alleyway prior to Shabbat, before he takes out his utensils and renders it prohibited for you to use the alleyway. In other words, you may not bring out utensils to the alleyway at all on Shabbat, as the institution of an eiruv cannot be used in the neighborhood of a Sadducee. This is because, even if he renounced his rights to the alleyway, he can always retract and reclaim them.

אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מַעֲשֶׂה בִצְדוֹקִי אֶחָד, שֶׁהָיָה דָר עִמָּנוּ בְּמָבוֹי בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְאָמַר לָנוּ אַבָּא, מַהֲרוּ וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת כָּל הַכֵּלִים לַמָּבוֹי, עַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא וְיֶאֱסֹר עֲלֵיכֶם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר בְּלָשׁוֹן אַחֵר, מַהֲרוּ וַעֲשׂוּ צָרְכֵיכֶם בַּמָּבוֹי עַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא וְיֶאֱסֹר עֲלֵיכֶם:


מעשה בצדוקי – the Mishnah is deficient and it should be read as follows: A Sadducee is like an idolater. Rabban Gamaliel states that is he not like an idolater. “And it once happened with one Sadducee, etc. And Father said to us: Hurry up and fulfill all of your requirements before it (i.e., the eve of the Sabbath) departs and places restrictions upon you”; we learn from this that he is like a Jew/Israelite and is able to resign his possession and because he can resign his possession and go back and take it out, whether inadvertently or on purpose, he restricts us, as is mentioned further on. Because of this, Rabban Gamaliel states: “Hurry and perform your requirements before he removes his utensils to the courtyard and goes back and takes hold of his possessions that he cancelled and places restrictions upon you, but if he (i.e., the Sadducee) is like an idolater and an idolater is not able to resign his possessions until he rents it out, how is he able to prohibit you after he has rented it out and taken money?

ור"י אומר – Rabban Gamaliel did not say this, for Rabban Gamaliel holds that a Sadducee is always like an idolater. And this incident is not a proof for this is how Rabban Gamaliel spoke to them: “Hurry up and fulfill all of your requirements on the Eve of Shabbat before it gets dark, and not until he doesn’t remove his utensils as you have stated, but until the day hasn’t yet departed and it places restrictions upon you. And the legal decision is that any Jew who violates the Sabbath in public is like an idolater, and we don’t prepare an Eruv with him and he doesn’t resign possession (i.e., a legal fiction by which the carrying of objects on the Sabbath from one’s own place to one common to several persons, may be permitted) but we rent from him in the same manner that we rent from the idolater, and the person who observes the Sabbath in public, even though he might violate it in private and does not recognize the designation/concept of Eruv such as the Sadducees at this time, who observe the Sabbath but do not recognize the designation/concept of Eruv, we do not make an Eruv with him but he can resign possession and one doesn’t need to rent from him and he isn’t necessarily an idolater.

מעשה בצדוקי. מתני׳ חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני, צדוקי הרי הוא כעכו״ם, רבן גמליאל אומר אינו כעכו״ם, ומעשה בצדוקי אחד כו׳ ואמר לנו אבא מהרו ועשו צרכיכם עד שלא יוציא ויאסר עליכם. שמע מינה דכישראל הוא ויכול לבטל רשות, ומפני שהמבטל רשותו וחזר והוציא בין בשוגג בין במזיד אוסר כדלקמן, משום הכי קאמר רבן גמליאל מהרו ועשו צרכיכם עד שלא יוציא הוא כליו לחצר ויחזור ויזכה ברשותו שבטל ויאסר עליכם, אבל אי כעכו״ם הוא ואין העכו״ם יכול לבטל עד שישכור, היכי הוי מצי למיסר עלייהו מאחר דאגיר להו ושקיל דמי:

ורבי יהודה אומר. לא כך אמר רבן גמליאל, דלעולם צדוקי הרי הוא כעכו״ם סבירא ליה לרבן גמליאל, ואותה מעשה אינה ראיה, דהכי קאמר להו רבן גמליאל מהרו ועשו צרכיכם בערב שבת קודם שתחשך, ולא עד שלא יוציא כליו כדאמרת, אלא עד שלא יצא היום ויאסר עליכם. ופסק ההלכה, שכל ישראל שמחלל שבת בפרהסיא הרי הוא כעובד כוכבים ואין מערבין עמו ואינו מבטל רשות, אלא שוכרים ממנו כדרך ששוכרים מן העכו״ם. והמשמר שבת בפרהסיא אף על פי שפעמים מחלל אותו בצנעא ואינו מודה בתורת עירוב, כגון הצדוקים בזמן הזה שמשמרים שבת ואינם מודים בתורת עירוב, ה״ז אין מערבין עמו, אבל יכול לבטל רשות וא״צ לשכור ממנו, והוא שלא יהיה עובד עכו״ם: