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Mishnayos Eruvin Perek 5 Mishnah 7

עירובין פרק ה׳ משנה ז׳


One who was to the east of his home when Shabbat began, and he had said to his son before Shabbat: Establish an eiruv for me to the west; or, if he was to the west of his home and he had said to his son: Establish an eiruv for me to the east, the halakha is as follows: If there is a distance of two thousand cubits from his current location to his house, and the distance to his eiruv is greater than this, he is permitted to walk to his house, and from there he may walk two thousand cubits in every direction, but it is prohibited for him to walk to the spot where his son had deposited his eiruv. If the distance from one’s current location to his eiruv is two thousand cubits, and the distance to his house is greater than this, he is prohibited from walking to his house, and he is permitted to walk to the spot of his eiruv, and from there he may walk two thousand cubits in every direction. In other words, with regard to the Shabbat limit, one’s place of residence for Shabbat cannot be more than two thousand cubits from his physical location when Shabbat begins. One who places his eiruv in the outskirts of the city, i.e., within an area of slightly more than seventy cubits surrounding the city, it is as though he has not done anything. The two thousand cubits of one’s Shabbat limit are measured from the edge of the outskirts of the city even if there is no eiruv, and one therefore gains nothing from placing an eiruv within this area. If, however, he placed his eiruv outside the city’s boundary, even if he placed it only one cubit beyond the city, what he gains in distance through his eiruv on one side of the city he loses on the other side.

מִי שֶׁהָיָה בַמִּזְרָח וְאָמַר לִבְנוֹ, עָרֵב לִי בַמַּעֲרָב, בַּמַּעֲרָב וְאָמַר לִבְנוֹ, עָרֵב לִי בַמִּזְרָח, אִם יֵשׁ הֵימֶנּוּ וּלְבֵיתוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמּוֹת, וּלְעֵרוּבוֹ יוֹתֵר מִכָּאן, מֻתָּר לְבֵיתוֹ וְאָסוּר לְעֵרוּבוֹ. לְעֵרוּבוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה, וּלְבֵיתוֹ יוֹתֵר מִכָּאן, אָסוּר לְבֵיתוֹ וּמֻתָּר לְעֵרוּבוֹ. הַנּוֹתֵן אֶת עֵרוּבוֹ בְעִבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל עִיר, לֹא עָשָׂה וְלֹא כְלוּם. נְתָנוֹ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, אֲפִלּוּ אַמָּה אַחַת, מַה שֶׁנִּשְׂכָּר הוּא מַפְסִיד:


מי שהיה במזרח – in the field, and he sanctified for himself the [Sabbath] day and he was far from his Eruv more than two-thousand [cubits], for his Eruv is not an Eruv, since he is not able to walk and to carry, it would be for him a Sabbath camp in his house when his Eruv is not an Eruv.

בעיבורה של עיר (within the outskirts of the city) – in one of the houses that stands within seventy cubits and left-overs.

לא עשה ולא כלום – for without an Eruv also, he has from the city/town two-thousand cubits in every direction, and the entire city/town with its outskirts are considered to him as four cubits.

נתנו חוץ לתחום – outside of the outskirts of the city/town. And this is explained in the Gemara (Tractate Eruvin 60b).

מה שנשכר –[what he gains] in this direction, he loses in the direction that is opposite it. For he counts from the Eruv two-thousand [cubits] in every direction if it and if he placed [something] at the end of one-thousand [cubits] to the east, it is found that the two-thousand [cubits] of the east end at the conclusion of three-thousand [cubits] of the city and he has gained one-thousand, but the two-thousand [cubits] of the west end at the end of one-thousand [cubits] of the west of the city, and he lost one-thousand [cubits]. And this comes to tell us that the city does not count in the total of the two-thousand [cubits] of the west but rather all of it is like four cubits. And these words [apply] when the two-thousand [cubits] do not end from the Eruv to the side of the city/town, but rather, at the end of the city/town or outside of it, but if they end in the middle or the city or at whatever place within it, he cannot walk within the city/town other than up to the point where the two-thousand cubits of the Eruv end, and not further, as it is taught nearby (in the next Mishnah).

מי שהיה במזרח. בשדה, וקדש עליו שם היום והוא רחוק מעירובו יותר מאלפים והרי אין עירובו עירוב כיון שאינו יכול לילך וליטלו, הויא ליה שביתתו בביתו שהרי בתחום ביתו הוא עומד ומסתמא בביתו ניחא ליה שתהא שביתתו כשאין עירובו עירוב:

אסור לביתו. למנות מביתו אלפים לכל רוח:

בעיבורה של עיר. באחד מן הבתים העומדים בתוך ע׳ אמה ושיריים:

לא עשה ולא כלום. שהרי בלא עירוב נמי יש לו מן העיר אלפים לכל רוח, וכל העיר עם עיבורה נחשבים לו כארבע אמות:

נתנו חוץ לתחום. חוץ לעיבורה של עיר, והכי מפרש לה בגמרא:

מה שנשכר. לרוח זה מפסיד לרוח שכנגדה. שהרי מונה מן העירוב אלפים לכל רוח ואם נתנו בסוף אלף למזרח נמצא שכלות אלפים של מזרח בסוף שלשה אלפים לעיר ונשתכר אלף ואלפים של מערב כלות בסוף אלף של מערב העיר והפסיד אלף. וקמ״ל דאין העיר עולה בחשבון האלפים של מערב אלא כולה כד׳ אמות. והני מילי כשאין כלות האלפים שמן העירוב לצד העיר אלא בסוף העיר או חוצה לה, אבל אם כלות באמצע העיר או באיזה מקום בתוכה אינו יכול לילך בתוך העיר אלא עד מקום שכלות האלפים אמה של עירוב ותו לא, כדתנן בסמוך: