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Mishnayos Eruchin Perek 9 Mishnah 3

ערכין פרק ט׳ משנה ג׳


One who sells a house from among the houses of walled cities may redeem the house immediately, even without the consent of the buyer, and he may redeem the house during the entire twelve months following the sale, but not after that. When he redeems the house within the twelve-month period, he returns the sale price to the buyer, and this is ostensibly like a form of interest, as the buyer has effectively resided in the house for free in exchange for the fact that the buyer’s money was in the possession of the seller. It is not considered interest, because the buyer owned the house during the period in which he resided in it. If the seller died, his son may redeem the house from the buyer. If the buyer died, the seller may redeem it from the possession of the buyer’s son. If the buyer sold the house to another, one calculates the year only from the time that the owner sold the house to the first buyer, as it is stated: “And if it is not redeemed until the passage of a full year for him, then the house that is in the walled city shall stand in possession of the one who bought it in perpetuity” (Leviticus 25:30). The term “for him” indicates that the year is calculated from when the initial owner sold the house. When it says: “A full year,” this serves to include the intercalated month in the year calculated from the sale, if it was a leap year. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The word “full” serves to give the seller a year and its addition, i.e., the year during which the house may be redeemed is not the 354-day lunar year, but the 365-day solar year.

הַמּוֹכֵר בַּיִת בְּבָתֵּי עָרֵי חוֹמָה, הֲרֵי זֶה גוֹאֵל מִיָּד, וְגוֹאֵל כָּל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ, הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִין רִבִּית וְאֵינָהּ רִבִּית. מֵת הַמּוֹכֵר, יִגְאַל בְּנוֹ. מֵת הַלּוֹקֵחַ, יִגְאַל מִיַּד בְּנוֹ. אֵינוֹ מוֹנֶה לוֹ שָׁנָה אֶלָּא מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם), עַד מְלֹאת לוֹ שָׁנָה תְמִימָה. וּכְשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר תְּמִימָה, לְהָבִיא חֹדֶשׁ הָעִבּוּר. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, יִתֵּן לוֹ שָׁנָה וְעִבּוּרָהּ:


הרי זה גאל מיד – and its law (i.e., of a house among houses in walled cities) is not like the law of an ancestral field which he does not redeem less than two years [after its sale].

הרי זה כמין ריבית – when he returns to him (i.e., the buyer) his money within a year and this one (i.e., the original seller) does not deduct from him anything, it is found that it was used in his house for the fee of the detaining of his money that certainly comes towards [collecting] interest, which is not permanently sold, but not through a sale for if he did not redeem it and it (i.e., the sale) becomes final, there is no interest charged.

יגאל בנו – [his son shall redeem it] within a year if he desires, but after a year, it is completely sold and it is not ever redeemed, as it is written (Leviticus 25:30): “If it is not redeemed before a complete year has elapsed, [the house in the walled city shall pass to the purchaser beyond reclaim throughout the ages; it shall not be released in the jubilee].”

משעה שמכר לו – that if Reuven sold it to Shimon in Nisan and Shimon [sold it] to Levi in Iyar, once Nisan arrived, it is permanently sold, and we don’t reckon to the second sale, but rather to the fist sale [only], as it is stated (Leviticus 25:30): “before a full year has elapsed,” for it implies to this one that it was his.

להביא חודש העיבור – for if it is a leap year (i.e., with an added month of Adar – seven times in every nineteen years), it is not completely sold until thirteen months [have passed].

שנה ועיבורה – whether it is a simple year or whether it is a leap year, we give him the lunar year which is three-hundred and fifty-four days and the eleven extra days that a solar year has over that of a lunar year that their intercalation we complement the year with. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

הרי זה גאל מיד. ואין דינו כדין שדה אחוזה שאינו גואל פחות משתי שנים:

הרי זה כמין ריבית. שכשמחזיר לו מעותיו בתוך שנה ואין זה מנכה לו כלום נמצא שנשתמש בביתו בשכר המתנת מעותיו:

ואינה ריבית. גמורה. דרבית לא מקריא אלא על ידי הלואה שודאי באה לידי רבית, שאינה נחלטת לעולם, ולא על ידי מכר שהרי אם לא יגאלנה ותחלוט לו אין כאן רבית:

יגאל בנו. בתוך שנה אם ירצה. אבל אחר שנה, נחלט ואינו נגאל עוד, כדכתיב ואם לא יגאל עד מלאת לו שנה תמימה וגו׳:

משעה שמכר לו. שאם מכרה ראובן לשמעון בניסן ושמעון ללוי באייר, כיון שהגיע ניסן הוא נחלט, ואין מונין למכר שני אלא לראשון, שנאמר עד מלאת לו, דמשמע לזה שהיתה שלו:

להביא חודש העיבור. שאם היתה שנה מעוברת אינה נחלטת עד י״ג חודש:

שנה ועיבורה. בין בשנה פשוטה בין בשנה מעוברת נותנים לו שנת לבנה שהיא שלש מאות וחמשים וארבע יום. וימים שיתרים שנת חמה על שנת לבנה אחד עשר יום שבעבורן אנו מעברים השנה. והלכה כחכמים: