Let's finish Mishnayos in memory of those who were murdered in Israel.
Pledge Mishnayos
Mishnah.org Logo

Mishnayos Eruchin Perek 8 Mishnah 7

ערכין פרק ח׳ משנה ז׳


As the Sages delineated: A person may dedicate his sacrificial animals, both offerings of the most sacred order and offerings of lesser sanctity. If the offering he dedicated was the object of a vow, e.g., if he said: It is incumbent upon me to sacrifice a burnt offering, since he is obligated to replace such offerings they are considered his property, and therefore he gives their value to the priests. And if the offering he dedicated was a gift offering, e.g., if he said: This animal is a burnt offering, in which case he is not obligated to replace the animal, he gives the monetary benefit that he has in them. For example, if he said: This bull is a burnt offering, one estimates how much money a person would be willing to give in order to sacrifice the animal as a voluntary burnt offering, even though he is not permitted to do so. With regard to a firstborn animal, whether it is unblemished or whether it is blemished, its owner may dedicate it. And how does one assess the payment required to redeem it? One estimates how much an Israelite person would be willing to give in exchange for that firstborn in order to give it to a priest who is his daughter’s son or to a priest who is his sister’s son. Rabbi Yishmael says: One verse states: “All the firstborn males that are born of your herd and of your flock you shall consecrate to the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 15:19), and one verse states: “However, the firstborn among animals that is born first to the Lord, a man shall not consecrate it” (Leviticus 27:26). It is impossible to say: “You shall consecrate,” as it is already stated: “A man shall not consecrate.” It is likewise impossible to say: “A man shall not consecrate,” as it is already stated: “You shall consecrate.” How, then, can these verses be reconciled? You can consecrate the firstborn animal by a consecration of value, i.e., an individual can donate to the Temple treasury the amount he would be willing to pay for the right to give the firstborn to a specific priest; and you cannot consecrate it by a consecration for the altar, as a firstborn may not be sacrificed for the sake of any other offering.

מַחֲרִים אָדָם אֶת קָדָשָׁיו, בֵּין קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים וּבֵין קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים. אִם נֶדֶר, נוֹתֵן אֶת הַדָּמִים. אִם נְדָבָה, נוֹתֵן אֶת טוֹבָתוֹ. שׁוֹר זֶה עוֹלָה, אוֹמְדִים כַּמָּה אָדָם רוֹצֶה לִתֵּן בְּשׁוֹר זֶה לְהַעֲלוֹתוֹ עוֹלָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי. הַבְּכוֹר, בֵּין תָּמִים בֵּין בַּעַל מוּם, מַחֲרִימִין אוֹתוֹ. כֵּיצַד פּוֹדִין אוֹתוֹ. הַפּוֹדִין אוֹמְדִים כַּמָּה אָדָם רוֹצֶה לִתֵּן בִּבְכוֹר זֶה, לִתְּנוֹ לְבֶן בִּתּוֹ אוֹ לְבֶן אֲחוֹתוֹ. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר תַּקְדִּישׁ, וְכָתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר אַל תַּקְדִּישׁ. אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר תַּקְדִּישׁ, שֶׁכְּבָר נֶאֱמַר אַל תַּקְדִּישׁ, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר אַל תַּקְדִּישׁ, שֶׁכְּבָר נֶאֱמַר תַּקְדִּישׁ. אֱמוֹר מֵעַתָּה, מַקְדִּישׁוֹ אַתָּה הֶקְדֵּשׁ עִלּוּי, וְאֵין אַתָּה מַקְדִּישׁוֹ הֶקְדֵּשׁ מִזְבֵּחַ:


ואם נדר – if he said: “this burnt-offering will be upon me,” and he separated an animal for his vow and afterwards dedicated it to sacred purposes, but since he is liable for its guarantee/surety (i.e., property which may be resorted to in the event of non-payment) if it (i.e., the animal) died or was stolen, and it is found that it is, and he gives all of its monetary value to the Kohen, but he will offer the animal up as a sacrifice in fulfillment of his vow, for this certainly has redemption.

ואם נקבה היא – that he is not liable for its surety if it died, property set apart for the priest or sacred use do not take effect, for it is not his, but rather incidentally, its worth. And the worth that it has for him he gives to the Kohen. How so? “This bull will be a burnt-offering,” and he dedicated it to the priests or for sacred purposes, they estimate how much a person who is not liable for a burnt-offering wants to give if he would find a burnt-offering cheaply in order to offer a sacrificial gift to his Creator, and equivalent to those monies, he gives that, for this is the satisfaction that he feels in obligating someone with it. For if it had died or was stolen, he is not liable for the surety, and when he separated it [for this purpose], he had fulfilled its obligation, but from now, he does not destroy nor lose anything other than the fact that he did not offer a sacrificial gift to His creator.

שאין רשאי – that he is not obligated for [a burnt-offering]. The Aramaic translation of נושה/ (see Psalms 109: 11: “May his creditor/נושה seize all his possessions”) is רשיא /pressing creditor.

כיצד פודין אותו – that regarding the firstling, its body is not dedicated to the priest or to sacred purposes, for it is not his but rather belongs to the Kohen. But rather, they estimate, how much a person would wish to give to the owner when he gives his first-born animal to the son of his daughter who is a Kohen or to the son of his sister. And that worth is what he gives, that this owner will give It to the Kohen for the property set apart for the use by the Kohen or for Temple use. And especially, it (i.e., the Mishnah) took the words, “the son of his daughter or the son of his sister, who is a Kohen,” for whereas it was the Kohen himself, he would not be able to give the satisfaction one feels in obligating someone to the owner in order that he should give the firstling to him or to another Kohen, for since the firstling is fit for him, he appears like a Kohen who is assisting in the granary to thresh and to winnow in order that they will give him heave-offerings as his salary, and it is found that he does not take it according to the law of heave-offerings, but rather according to law of salary [as payment for labor performed].

כתוב אחד אומר תקדיש – regarding the firstling, it is written (Deuteronomy 15:19): “You shall consecrate [to the LORD your God] all male firstlings that are born [in your herd and in our flock: you must not work your firstling ox or shear your firstling sheep].”

וכתוב אחד אומר אל תקדיש –(Leviticus 27:26): “A firstling of animals, however, -which -as a firstling – is the LORD’s, cannot be consecrated by anybody; [whether ox or sheep, it is the LORD’s].”

הקדש עילוי (consecration by valuation: a pledge made to consecrate an article that is already sacred; a person is obligated to pay the amount one would be willing to pay to sacrifice that offering – but not necessarily the full value of the offering) – to offer up in money that he would give for the satisfaction one feels in obligating someone how much [money] that a person wishes to give to offer up a burnt-offering that he is not obligated for but rather in order to make a gift to his Creator.

ואי אתה מקדישו הקדש מזבח – that there will be there another [sacrifice] that will rest upon him. But the Rabbis who derive for them this exposition above (see Tractate Arakhin, Chapter 8, Mishnah 6): “from everything that is devoted to the priests or to sacred purposes are the most holy things,” [the words] "אל תקדיש" /”You will not sanctify” (Leviticus 27:26) is required for them as a negative commandment, for if one seizes it for the purposes of another sacrifices, he is violating a negative commandment, and [the word] "תקדיש"/”You shall sanctify” (Deuteronomy 15:19) they require to state that it is a commandment to sanctify it and to state this is holy for a first-born, and even though that of its own it is holy. But Rabbi Yishmael does not hold by this exposition. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

אם נדר. אם אמר הרי עלי עולה והפריש בהמה לנדרו ואח״כ החרימה, הואיל והוא חייב באחריותה אם מתה או נגנבה, נמצאת שלו היא ונותן כל דמיה לכהן ואת הבהמה יקריב לנדרו, דהא ודאי יש לה פדיון:

ואם נדבה היא. דאינו חייב באחריותה אם מתה, הא ודאי לא חייל בה חרם, דלאו דידיה היא אלא בכדי טובתה, וטובה שיש לו בה יתן לכהן. כיצד, שור זה עולה והחרימו, אומדים כמה אדם שאינו חייב בעולה רוצה ליתן אם ימצא עולה בזול כדי להקריב דורון לקונו, וכאותן דמים יתן זה, שזו היא טובת הנאה שיש לו בה. שהרי אם מתה או נגנבה אינו חייב באחריותה, ומשהפרישה יצא ידי חובתה, ומעתה אינו מאבד ואינו מפסיד אלא שלא הקריב דורון לקונו:

שאינו רשאי. שאינו חייב. תרגום נושה רשיא:

כיצד פודין אותו. דהבכור גופו אינו מוחרם, שהרי אינו שלו אלא לכהן. אלא אומדים כמה אדם רוצה ליתן לבעל הבית שיתן בכורו לבן בתו כהן או לבן אחותו, ואותה טובה דיהיב, יתן בעל הבית זה לכהן בשביל החרם. ודוקא נקט בן בתו או בן אחותו כהן, דאילו כהן גופו לא מצי למיתן טובת הנאה לבעל הבית כדי שיתן הבכור לו או לכהן אחר, דכיון דבכור חזי ליה מיחזי ככהן המסייע בבית הגרנות לדוש ולזרות כדי שיתנו לו תרומות בשכרו, ואשתכח דלא שקיל ליה בתורת תרומה אלא בתורת שכר:

כתוב אחד אומר תקדיש. גבי בכור כתיב (דברים ט״ו:י״ט) כל הבכור אשר יולד תקדיש:

וכתוב אחר אומר אל תקדיש. (ויקרא כ״ז:כ״ו) אך בכור אשר יבוכר לה׳ בבהמה לא יקדיש איש אותו:

הקדש עילוי. להעלותו בדמים שיתן טובת הנאתו כמה אדם רוצה ליתן בו להעלותו עולה שאינו חייב בה אלא כדי לעשות דורון לקונו:

ואי אתה מקדישו הקדש מזבח. שיהא שם [זבח] אחר חל עליו. ורבנן דנפקא להו הך דרשא לעיל מכל חרם קודש קדשים, אל תקדיש מיבעי להו ללאו, שאם מתפיסו לשם זבח אחר עובר בלאו, ותקדיש מבעי להו לומר שמצוה להקדישו ולומר זה קדוש לבכורה, ואע״ג דמאליו הוא קדוש. ור׳ ישמעאל לית ליה הך דרשא. והלכה כחכמים: