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Mishnayos Chullin Perek 1 Mishnah 7

חולין פרק א׳ משנה ז׳


Temed, a beverage produced from grape residue soaked in water, until it fermented, may not be purchased with second-tithe money to be drunk in Jerusalem, because it is not wine. And if three log of it fall into a ritual bath, its halakhic status is that of drawn water and it invalidates the ritual bath. Once it fermented, it is wine, and therefore it may be purchased with second-tithe money and it does not invalidate the ritual bath. With regard to brothers who are partners in the inheritance of their father, when they are obligated to add the premium [kalbon] to their annual half-shekel payment to the Temple, they are exempt from animal tithe; when they are obligated to separate animal tithe, they are exempt from adding the premium. Partners who pay the half-shekel are required to add the premium and are exempt from animal tithe. If they are not true partners, but their inheritance remains the property of the father, the sons are exempt from paying the premium, and they are obligated to separate animal tithe. Any situation where there is sale of one’s daughter as a Hebrew maidservant, i.e., when she is a minor, there is no fine of fifty sela paid to her father if she is raped or seduced, as that fine is paid to her father only when she is a young woman. And any situation where there is a fine paid to the father there is no sale. Any situation where there is the right of refusal for a minor girl married by her mother or brothers, enabling her to opt out of the marriage, there is no ḥalitza, as a minor girl whose husband died without children cannot perform ḥalitza. And any situation where there is ḥalitza, once she has reached majority, there is no right of refusal. Any situation where there is a shofar blast sounded on the eve of Shabbat or a Festival to stop the people from performing labor and to demarcate between the sacred and the profane, there is no havdala recited at the conclusion of the Shabbat or Festival in prayer and over a cup of wine. And any situation where there is havdala recited, there is no shofar blast sounded. How so? On a Festival that occurs on Shabbat eve, one sounds the shofar to stop the people from performing labor that is permitted on the Festival and prohibited on Shabbat and to demarcate between one sacred day and another; and one does not recite havdala, as that is recited only when the transition is from a sacred day to a profane day or from a day of greater sanctity to a day of lesser sanctity. The sanctity of Shabbat is greater than the sanctity of the Festival, and therefore havdala is not recited in this case. On a Festival that occurs at the conclusion of Shabbat, one recites havdala, but one does not sound the shofar. How does one recite havdala in that case; i.e., what is the formula of the blessing? It concludes: Who distinguishes between sacred and sacred, as opposed to the standard blessing at the conclusion of Shabbat: Who distinguishes between sacred and profane. Rabbi Dosa says that the formula is: Who distinguishes between greater sanctity and lesser sanctity.

הַתֶּמֶד, עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֶחֱמִיץ, אֵינוֹ נִקָּח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר, וּפוֹסֵל אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. מִשֶּׁהֶחֱמִיץ, נִקָּח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר וְאֵינוֹ פוֹסֵל אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. הָאַחִין הַשֻּׁתָּפִין, כְּשֶׁחַיָּבִין בַּקָּלְבּוֹן, פְּטוּרִין מִמַּעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה. כְּשֶׁחַיָּבִין בְּמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה, פְּטוּרִין מִן הַקָּלְבּוֹן. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ מֶכֶר, אֵין קְנַס. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ קְנַס, אֵין מָכֶר. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ מֵאוּן, אֵין חֲלִיצָה. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ חֲלִיצָה, אֵין מֵאוּן. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ תְּקִיעָה, אֵין הַבְדָּלָה. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ הַבְדָּלָה, אֵין תְּקִיעָה. יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, תּוֹקְעִין וְלֹא מַבְדִּילִין. בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, מַבְדִּילִין וְלֹא תוֹקְעִין. כֵּיצַד מַבְדִּילִין, הַמַּבְדִּיל בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְקֹדֶשׁ. רַבִּי דוֹסָא אוֹמֵר, בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ חָמוּר לְקֹדֶשׁ הַקַּל:


התמד עד שלא החמיץ – (See Mishnah Maaser Sheni, Chapter 1, Mishnah 3, for identical parallel text of the first part of the Mishnah). Up until now [in this chapter of Mishnah Hullin] we have been dealing with two things and the matter that is practiced with one is not practiced with the other, and now we are dealing with one thing, and when a certain thing is in vogue with it, another thing is not in vogue with it.

תמד – water that is placed on the exterior or on the interior [of grapes] and when they are warmed and ferment, produce wine, or [when water is placed is placed] on the sediment and the water absorbs the flavor of the wine. And [this occurs] at the time when one places [on the wine] three parts of water and it produces four. Everyone holds that it is superior wine. But here we are dealing [with a case] where it did not produce other than what he put on it, or less or just a bit more.

עד שלא החמיץ – It is mere water and is not purchased with the money of the [second] tithe, for the wine that is mentioned which is purchased with [second] tithe monies (as is written – Deuteronomy chapter 14, verse 26): “And spend the money on anything you want…” Just as the specification is spelled out, the usufruct of the fruit from the fruit and that which grows in the ground, so too every (usufruct of the fruit from fruit and that which grows in the ground.

ופוסל את המקוה – since three “logs” (a “log” is a measurement which equals six eggs in volume) [amount of] drawn water make a Mikveh unfit [for immersion], but if it (the water that had been placed on the exterior or on the interior of grapes) fell into it (the Mikveh) prior to conducting the forty Seah of water (which is necessary for a Kosher Mikveh – see Mishnah Mikvaot, Chapter 1, Mishnah 7 and Mishnah Menahot Chapter 12, Mishnah 4) into a channel, the wine does not disqualify the Mikveh other than through a change in its appearance.

משהחמיץ – (once it has fermented), it is considered wine, and we use it to be purchased with [the money of] the [second] tithe, and does not [by its being poured into the Mikveh] disqualify the Mikveh.

האחין השותפין – brothers who were partners in their inheritance.

שחייבין בקלבון פטורין במעשר בהמה – See Mishnah Bekhorot, Chapter 9, Mishnah 3 where this Mishnah fragment is also found. (See Mishnah Shekalim, Chapter 1, Mishnah 6 - in the Bartenura commentary for a definition of the word קלבוןקולבון – something light and small that is added to the one-half shekel requirement each person must pay as a poll tax – see Exodus, chapter 30, verses 11-16 - that is divided among the partners – if they are Levites, Israelites, converts or freed slaves, but not Priests, women, slaves or minors.) Brothers who divided [the inheritance at first] and at the end became partners, are obligated to pay the agio (a premium paid for changing one kind of money to another–an allowance or premium for the difference in value between two currencies being exchanged) and when they bring their two one-half Shekels, they give two Kalbonim–agios, and the Kalbon is the way of expressing a customary additional weight in retailing–boot – that they (the partners) are obliged to overbalance their Shekalim. And if they gave between the both of them a complete Shekel (i.e. adding to the obligatory one-half Shekel that each adult male is required to give - see the Biblical source from Exodus quoted above), they give two Kolbonot, which they have to pay the head-tax in halves. But they are exempt from the tithe for cattle (offered on the first day of Elul – see Mishnah Rosh Hashanah, Chapter 1, Mishnah 1), as is brought in (the Talmud) Tractate Bekhorot in the last chapter (56b). The words (Numbers chapter 18, verse 9) teach: “This shall be yours [from the most holy sacrifices, the gifts: every such offering that they render to Me as most holy sacrifices….shall belong to you and your sons],”and not [that which belongs] to partners. And there (in Berakhot 56b), they (the Rabbis) prove that this verse [as referring to] the tithe [of cattle] even though it is written in connection with the first-born [animals].

וכחייבין במעשר בהמה – for example, if they never divided [their estate], they are obliged to give the tithe for cattle, to tithe all those [cattle] born to them all the days of their partnership, as it says there (Talmud Bekhorot 56b), they are able, even if they purchased it that which belongs to the estate (before division among heirs), as it teaches (Numbers, chapter 18, verse 9), “shall be [yours]” regardless.

ופטורין מן הקלבון – (they are exempt from paying the Kolbon) completely, in that they offer the head-tax of a full shekel (half a shekel apiece) between them; since their father’s monies are presumed to be standing in his possession. And the father who pays the head-tax for his sons or for someone from his city, he exempts him (i.e., that individual) from paying the head-tax by his own [payment], and his [concerning] his sons also, the Mitzvah of paying the head-tax [of one-half Shekel per individual] is not upon him (i.e., the father), but they are likened to be like his neighbor or fellow city-dweller.

כל מקום שיש מכר – that a man can sell his daughter, that is when she is a minor.

אין קנס – (when her daughter was a נערה –between the ages of twelve and twelve years and six months) if she had been violated–outraged (raped) or seduced, her father does not receive the fifty shekels of silver (as it is written (Deuteronomy 22:29): “the may who lay with her shall give shall pay the girl’s father fifty [shekels of] silver, and she shall be his wife…”

וכל מקום שיש קנס – that is when she is a נערה–a maiden between the ages of twelve and twelve years and six months.

אין מכר – a man (i.e., the father) may not sell his daughter to another (man) after she has brought forth the signs of her maidenhood (i.e., puberty). And our Mishnah is [according to] Rabbi Meir (see the parallel Mishnah Ketubot, Chapter 3, Mishnah 8 – and the general rule that anonymous Mishnah texts accord with the opinion of Rabbi Meir in Sanhedrin 86a and Hullin 26b), who said that that a minor girl from the age of one day until she brings forth two pubic hairs (symptoms of maturity), she is able to be sold but there is no financial penalty. But the Halakha is like the Sages (that a minor daughter from the age of three years and one day until she brings form the signs of her maturity can be sold and there is a fine associated with this sale). And it is found that a daughter from the day she is born until she becomes fit for sex[ual relations], she can be sold but there is no fine regarding her. And when she is deemed fit for sexual relations until she brings forth signs of her maturity, she can be sold and there is a fine regarding to her. And there is no distinction between נערות–maidenhood and adulthood – other than a [period of] six months.

כל מקום שיש מיאון – An orphaned girl who was married off by her mother and–or her brothers, even with her knowledge (i.e. acceptance), can refuse and leaves [this marriage] without a Jewish bill of divorce until she brings forth her signs of maturity. Throughout the days of her being a minor, she is not appropriate for her to have [her perform the ceremony of] חליצה–taking off the shoe of her dead husband’s brother and spitting in his face (see Deuteronomy chapters 25, verses 5-11) if she is a יבמה–widow of a brother who died without having any children, for the word "איש"–”a man” is written in the portion (Deuteronomy chapter 25, verse 7): “But if the man does not want [to marry his brother’s widow]…” And they [the Rabbis] raise an objection comparing a woman to a man. And when she appears able to conduct [the ceremony] of חליצה–taking off the shoe of her dead husband’s brother and spitting in his face, she is not able [any longer] to refuse [the marriage recommendations of her mother and–or brothers].

כל מקום שיש תקיעות – On the eves of the Sabbath and Jewish Holy Days (Yom Tov), the Shofar is sounded with three Tekiot (succession of connected notes) to cause the people to cease from their [weekday] labor and at twilight, they sound the Tekiah (succession of connected notes), the Teruah (rapid succession of nine notes–tremolo) and [another] Tekiah and then they stop [working].

אין הבדלה – There is no [recitation of the prayers of the Havdalah ceremony, concluding the Sabbath and–or Festivals] neither on the wine or in the Amidah (the fourth blessing of the Amidah on Saturday night contains the Havdalah prayer), for there is no Havdalah other than on aftermath of Sabbaths and Festivals.

יום טוב שחל להיות בערב שבת תוקעים – Even though it was also the day of a Jewish holy day (Yom Tov), and there is no work [performed], we sound the Shofar (i.e. the succession of connected notes) to cause people to stop their food preparation (which is permissible on Jewish holy days during the weekdays).

ולא מבדילין – Because he enters into the more stringent [day of the Sabbath] from what he is leaving [the less stringent day of the Holy Day].

חל להיות במוצאי שבת מבדילין – Since one leaves the more stringent (i.e. the Sabbath), from what one is entering into (i.e. Jewish Holy Day], and there is no sounding of the Shofar here.

כיצד מבדילין – [When going] from [the] Sabbath to Yom Tov (Jewish holy day), when a Jewish holy day occurs (and begins) on a Saturday evening (at the conclusion of the Sabbath).

רבי דוסא אומר: בין קודש חמור – But the Halakha does not follow Rabbi Dosa since we do not treat lightly the Jewish holy day by calling it the unimportant [or of minor value] holy day.

התמד עד שלא החמיץ. עד השתא איירי בתרתי מילי ודבר הנוהג בזה אינו נוהג בזה, והשתא איירי בחדא מלתא ובזמן שדבר זה נוהג בה אין דבר זה נוהג בה:

תמד. מים שנותנים על החרצנים והזגים וכשמחמיץ ותוסס נעשה יין, או על השמרים וקולטים אותן המים טעם היין. ובזמן שנתן שלשה חלקים מים והוציא ארבעה, לכולי עלמא יין מעליא הוא. והכא מיירי כגון שלא הוציא אלא כמו שנתן, או פחות או מעט יותר:

עד שלא החמיץ. מים בעלמא הוא ואינו נקח בכסף מעשר. דיין הוזכר בקיחת כסף מעשר (דברימ י״ד) ונתת הכסף בכל אשר תאוה נפשך וגו׳, מה הפרט מפורש פרי מפרי וגדולי קרקע אף כל פרי מפרי וגדולי קרקע:

ופוסל את המקוה. דשלשה לוגין מים שאובין פוסלין את המקוה אם נפל לתוכו קודם המשכת ארבעים סאה, ויין אינו פוסל את המקוה אלא בשינוי מראה:

משהחמיץ. חשוב יין. ונוהג בו קיחת מעשר, ואין נוהג בו פסול מקוה:

האחין השותפין. האחין שהן שותפין בירושתן:

כשחייבים בקלבון פטורין ממעשר בהמה. האחין שחלקו ולבסוף נשתתפו, חייבים בקלבון, וכשמביאין שקליהן מביאין שני חצאי שקלים ונותנים שני קלבונות. והקלבון הוא לשון הכרע, שחייבין להכריע שקליהן. ואם נתנו בין שניהם שקל שלם נותנים שני קלבונות, שהיה להן לשקול לחצאין. ופטורים ממעשר בהמה מכל הנולדים להם כל ימי שותפות, שהשותפות פטור ממעשר בהמה, כדאיתא בבכורות בפרק בתרא [דף נ״ז], יהיה לך, ולא של שותפות. והתם מוקים ליה להאי קרא במעשר, ואע״ג דבבכור כתיב:

וכשחייבין במעשר בהמה. כגון אם לא חלקו מעולם חייבין במעשר בהמה, לעשר כל הנולדים להם כל ימי שותפותם. דאמר התם, יכול אפילו קנו בתפוסת הבית, תלמוד לומר יהיה, מכל מקום:

ופטורין מן הקלבון. לגמרי. ששוקלין בין שניהם שקל שלם. שממון אביהם בחזקתו עומד. והאב השוקל על בניו או על אחד מבני עירו ופוטר בשלו, פטור מן הקלבון, דתנן בשקלים [פ״א] השוקל בשביל העני או בשביל שכנו או בשביל בן עירו פטור, ובניו נמי אין מצות שקליהם עליו והוו להו כשכנו ובן עירו:

כל מקום שיש מכר. שאדם יכול למכור את בתו. דהיינו כשהיא קטנה:

אין קנס. אם נאנסה או נתפתתה אין לאביה חמשים כסף. דנערה כתיב, (דברים כ״ב:כ״ט) ונתן האיש השוכב עמה לאבי הנערה חמשים כסך:

וכל מקום שיש קנס. דהיינו כשהיא נערה:

אין מכר. שאין אדם מוכר את בתו לאחר שהביאה סימני נערות. ומתניתין ר׳ מאיר היא, דאמר קטנה מבת יום אחד עד שתביא שתי שערות יש לה מכר ואין לה קנס. משתביא שתי שערות עד שתבגר יש לה קנס ואין לה מכר. אבל חכמים אומרים, קטנה מבת שלש שנים ויום אחד עד שתביא שתי שערות. יש לה מכר ויש לה קנס. והלכה כחכמים. ונמצא שהבת מיום שנולדה עד שתראה לביאה יש לה מכר ואין לה קנס. ומשתראה לביאה עד שתביא סימנין, יש לה מכר ויש לה קנס. ומשתביא סימנין עד שתבגר, יש לה קנס ואין לה מכר. ואין בין נערות לבגרות אלא ששה חדשים:

כל מקום שיש מיאון. יתומה שהשיאוה אמה ואחיה ואפילו לדעתה, יכולה למאן ויוצאה בלא גט, עד שתביא סימנין. וכל ימי קטנותה אינה ראויה לחליצה אם יבמה היא, דאיש כתיב בפרשה (שם כ״ה) ואם לא יחפוץ האיש, ומקשינן אשה לאיש. ומשנראית לחליצה אינה יכולה למאן:

כל מקום שיש תקיעה. בערבי שבתות וימים טובים תוקעים שלש תקיעות להבטיל את העם ממלאכה ובין השמשות תוקע ומריע ותוקע ושובת:

אין הבדלה. לא על הכוס ולא בתפלה. שאין הבדלה אלא במוצאי שבתות וימים טובים:

יום טוב שחל להיות בערב שבת תוקעים. אע״פ שגם היום יום טוב היה ואין בו מלאכה, תוקעין להבטיל ממלאכת אוכל נפש:

ולא מבדילין. מפני שהנכנס חמור מן היוצא:

חל להיות במוצאי שבת מבדילין. לפי שהיוצא חמור מן הנכנס. ותקיעה אין כאן:

כיצד מבדילין. בין שבת ליום טוב כשחל יום טוב להיות במוצאי שבת:

רבי דוסא אומר בין קודש חמור. ואין הלכה כר׳ דוסא דלא מזלזלינן ביום טוב לקרותו קודש הקל: