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Mishnayos Chullin Perek 1 Mishnah 1

חולין פרק א׳ משנה א׳


Everyone slaughters an animal, i.e., can perform halakhically valid slaughter, and their slaughter is valid, except for a deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor, lest they ruin their slaughter because they lack competence. And for all of them, when they slaughtered an animal and others see and supervise them, their slaughter is valid. Slaughter performed by a gentile renders the animal an unslaughtered carcass, and the carcass imparts ritual impurity through carrying. In the case of one who slaughters an animal at night, and likewise in the case of the blind person who slaughters an animal, his slaughter is valid. In the case of one who slaughters an animal on Shabbat or on Yom Kippur, although he is liable to receive the death penalty, his slaughter is valid.

הַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין וּשְׁחִיטָתָן כְּשֵׁרָה, חוּץ מֵחֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה, וְקָטָן, שֶׁמָּא יְקַלְקְלוּ בִשְׁחִיטָתָן. וְכֻלָּן שֶׁשָּׁחֲטוּ וַאֲחֵרִים רוֹאִין אוֹתָן, שְׁחִיטָתָן כְּשֵׁרָה. שְׁחִיטַת נָכְרִי, נְבֵלָה, וּמְטַמְּאָה בְמַשָּׂא. הַשּׁוֹחֵט בַּלַּיְלָה, וְכֵן הַסּוּמָא שֶׁשָּׁחַט, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּשַׁבָּת, וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה:


הכל שוחטין – There is a refutation in the Gemara [that the words] הכל שוחטין –”everyone may [perform the act of ritual] slaughter [of animals]” [refer to the case] ab initio [and the words] ושחיטתן –”their slaughtering” [refers to a case] de facto, since from the beginning [of the Mishnah] [these words] imply that what we include from [the words]הכל שוחטין –”everyone may [perform the act of ritual] slaughter [of animals]” ab initio and from the conclusion [of the Mishnaic phrase] implies that when we include from [the word] הכל–”everyone” post facto, we [in fact] extend it, but ab initio, we do not extend [what is included in] it; and that we cannot say that our Mishnah withholds something ab initio and that one thing [only] is taught. And since [the Mishnah] teaches הכל שוחטין–everyone may [perform the act of ritual] slaughter [of animals], it is obvious that is fit [i.e. kosher] and that the upshot is [that] our Mishnah is explained as such in the Gemara. [The words] שוחטין–” [imply that] everyone may [perform the act of ritual] slaughter [of animals]” [means] that everyone who are specialists who know the laws of ritual slaughter [of animals] [may perform the act of] slaughter[ing] animals [ritually] even though they are not [necessarily] presumed for it, for they have not slaughtered [ritually] in the presence of us [i.e. the judges] three times to see if they have the [inner] fortitude not to be overcome (i.e., his hand not trembling – see Hullin 3b] while slaughtering and cause a pausing in the act of slaughtering [which would nullify their act ritually]. What case are we referring to? That they are considered specialists at the time that those who deliver to him [an animal] to ritually slaughter know and recognize in him that he knows the laws of ritual slaughter, but if they do not know concerning him if he [indeed] knows the laws of ritual slaughter, he should not [perform] a ritual slaughter, and if he did slaughter [an animal ritually], we examine him, and if he knows the laws of ritual slaughter, his [act of] slaughter[ing] is [considered] kosher–fit.

חוץ מחרש שוטה וקטן – For even post facto, and [even if] they (i.e., the deaf-mute, imbecile and minor] know the laws of ritual slaughter, it is forbidden to eat from their slaughtering, since they are always presumed to ruin it since they lack [mature] awareness.

וכולן ששחטו – Since it [our Mishnah] does not teach [the words] “ואם שחטו–and if they slaughtered” but rather [taught the words] “וכולן ששחטו–and everyone who slaughtered” implies that it [the words] do not [refer to] the deaf-mute, imbecile and minor alone, but even regarding those who they [i.e. the judges] do not know if [the individual] knows the laws of ritual slaughter since the first part of the Mishnah refers to [the fact] that they examine him or bring him before them to examine him and he slaughters and others seem him and bring him before them to examine him, his slaughtering is [considered] kosher–fit but the law does not follow this Mishnah but rather, even though others do not see him and bring him [i.e. the slaughterer] before them to examine him, his slaughtering is [considered] kosher–fit, since most [people who are engaged] in ritual slaughter are specialists and even ab initio, may slaughter, even if though others do not see him [perform this act].

שחיטת עובד כוכבים – even [if the act of a ritual slaughter performed by an idolater] if it is done according to Jewish law with a Jew standing over him, it [his act of slaughtering] is considered to be like that of a carrion (an animal who died naturally) but it is not prohibited to derive benefit from [his act of slaughtering] since specifically the act of slaughtering of a person who holds fast to his idolatrous beliefs, [a Jew] is prohibited to derive benefit [from his acts], but not regarding the thinking of a heretic regarding idolatrous practices, but the idolater spoken of here is from those actions follow the behavior of his ancestors.

ומטמאה במשא – As it is written (Leviticus 11:40): “[anyone who eats of its carcass shall wash his clothes and remain clean until evening;] and anyone who carries his carcass shall wash his clothes and remain clean until evening.” And even though he had not touched it. For the Mishnah did not have to teach this, for since it is something that died of itself (i.e., “neveilah”), it is known that an animal that died of itself defiles [an individual] by carrying it (i.e., a dead carcass), but it (the Mishnah) comes to inform you, that this defiles only via carrying alone, and there are others which defile even through content in the tent (where it is found). And which is this? An offering to an idol (Avodah Zarah 32b).

השוחט בלילה וכן הסומא – The Mishnah teaches that an individual who slaughters [an animal] at night is compared to a blind individual. Just as a blind person in a dark place [should not engage in ritual slaughter], so too an individual who engages in ritual slaughtering at night in a dark place, and in this matter it [our Mishnah] teaches [through the use of the word] "השוחט"–he who performs ritual slaughter – post facto, yes, but not ab initio., but when there is a torch before him, even ab initio, he may perform acts of ritual slaughter at night.

השוחט בשבת – Even though that if he acted (by performing an act of ritual slaughter on Shabbat) willfully, he would make himself liable [to the death penalty], his [act of] ritual slaughter is [considered] fit; but however, it would be forbidden to consume it on that day, and for this reason, it [the Mishnah] teaches “[he who ritually slaughters] on the Sabbath and on the Day of Atonement” in order to make an analogy between the Sabbath and the Day of Atonement. Just as it forbidden to eat [it] on Yom Kippur the entire day because [of the requirement] of “afflicting [of one’s soul],” so too on the Sabbath it is forbidden in eating it the entire day. But on Saturday night (i.e., the aftermath of the Sabbath), it is permitted [to be consumed] whether by him or by others. And a person who performs an act of ritual slaughtering on Shabbat for an infirm individual has acted in a permissible manner, and it is permitted for a healthy individual to eat from that [what had been slaughtered] raw meat, but not cooked, lest he increase it for him.

הכל שוחטין. בגמרא פריך, הכל שוחטים לכתחלה, ושחיטתן כשירה דיעבד. דמרישא משמע דהאי דמרבינן מהכל שוחטין לכתחלה, ובסיפא משמע דכי מרבינן מהכל, דיעבד מרבינן ליה אבל לכתחלה לא אתרבי. והא ליכא למימר כולה מתניתין לכתחלה וחדא קתני, דכיון דתנא הכל שוחטין פשיטא דכשרה. ובמסקנא מפרשא מתניתין בגמרא הכי, הכל שוחטין, כל המומחים היודעים הלכות שחיטה שוחטין, ואע״פ שאין מוחזקין, שלא שחטו לפנינו שלשה פעמים לראות אם יש בהן כח שלא יתעלפו בשחיטה ויבואו לידי שהיה. במה דברים אמורים דחשיבי מומחים, בזמן שאלו המוסרים לו לשחוט יודעים ומכירים בו שיודע הלכות שחיטה, אבל אם אין יודעים בו אם יודע הלכות שחיטה, לא ישחוט. ואם שחט, בודקין אותו, ואם יודע הלכות שחיטה שחיטתו כשרה:

חוץ מחרש שוטה וקטן. דאפילו דיעבד ויודעים הלכות שחיטה אסור לאכול משחיטתן. דתמיד הן מוחזקין לקלקל, שאין בהן דעת:

וכולן ששחטו. מדלא קתני ואם שחטו, אלא וכולן ששחטו, משמע דלאו אחרש שוטה וקטן גרידא קאי אלא אך אשאין יודעים בו אם יודע הלכות שחיטה דרישא קאי, דבודקין אותו. ואי ליתיה קמן דלבדקיה, ושחט ואחרים רואין אותו, שחיטתו כשרה. ולית הלכתא כי האי מתניתין. אלא אף על גב דאין אחרים רואין אותו וליתיה קמן דלבדקיה שחיטתו כשרה, דרוב מצויין אצל שחיטה מומחים הן, ואף לכתחלה שוחטין אע״פ שאין אחרים רואין אותן:

שחיטת נכרי. אפילו כהלכתה וישראל עומד על גביו, נבלה. אבל אינה אסורה בהנאה, דדוקא שחיטת מין האדוק לעבודה זרה אסורה בהנאה, דסתם מחשבת מין לעבודה זרה, אבל נכרי האמור כאן הוא מאותן שמעשה אבותיהן בידיהן:

ומטמאה במשא. כדכתיב (ויקרא י״א:מ׳) והנושא את נבלתה וגו׳, ואעפ״י שלא נגע. ולא היה צריך למתני, דכיון דנבילה היא בידוע שנבילה מטמאה במשא, אלא לומר לך, זו מטמאה במשא בלבד, ויש לך אחרת שמטמאה אפילו באוהל, ואי זו, זו תקרובת עבודר זרה:

השוחט בלילה וכן הסומא. תנא שוחט בלילה דומיא דסומא, מה סומא באפילה אף השוחט בלילה באפילה, ובהאי הוא דתנא השוחט דיעבד אין לכתחלה לא, אבל כשאבוקה כנגדו אפילו לכתחלה שוחטים בלילה:

השוחט בשבת. אע״פ שאם היה מזיד היה מתחייב בנפשו, שחיטתו כשרה. ומיהו אסורה באכילה ליומה, דלהכי תני בשבת וביום הכפורים, לאקושי שבת ליום הכיפורים, מה יום הכיפורים אסורה באכילה כל אותו היום משום עינוי, אף שבת אסורה באכילה כל אותו היום. ולמוצאי שבת מותרת בין לו בין לאחרים. והשוחט לחולה בשבת דבהתירא קא שחט. מותר לבריא לאכול ממנו באותו שבת בשר חי, אבל לא מבושל, שמא ירבה בשבילו: