Let's finish Mishnayos in memory of those who were murdered in Israel.
Pledge Mishnayos
Mishnah.org Logo

Mishnayos Brachos Perek 1 Mishnah 4

ברכות פרק א׳ משנה ד׳


From the laws of the recitation of Shema itself, the mishna proceeds to discuss the blessings recited in conjunction with Shema. Here, the order is established: In the morning when reciting Shema, one recites two blessings beforehand, the first on the radiant lights and the second the blessing on the love of Torah, and one thereafter, which begins with: True and Firm [emet veyatziv]. And in the evening one recites two blessings beforehand, on the radiant lights and on the love of God, and two thereafter, the blessing of redemption: True and Faithful [emet ve’emuna], and the blessing: Help us lie down. With regard to the blessing: True and Faithful, whether one recites it in its long formula and whether one recites it in its short formula, he fulfills his obligation (Tosafot). However, the general principle is: Where the Sages said to recite a long blessing, one may not shorten it, and so too, wherever they said to recite a short blessing, one may not lengthen it. Where the Sages said that a blessing must conclude with a second blessing at the end, he may not fail to conclude with that blessing. Similarly, if the Sages said that a blessing must not conclude with a second blessing, one may not conclude with a blessing.

בַּשַּׁחַר מְבָרֵךְ שְׁתַּיִם לְפָנֶיהָ וְאַחַת לְאַחֲרֶיהָ, וּבָעֶרֶב שְׁתַּיִם לְפָנֶיהָ וּשְׁתַּיִם לְאַחֲרֶיהָ. אַחַת אֲרֻכָּה וְאַחַת קְצָרָה. מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמְרוּ לְהַאֲרִיךְ, אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְקַצֵּר. לְקַצֵּר, אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְהַאֲרִיךְ. לַחְתֹּם, אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי שֶׁלֹּא לַחְתֹּם. וְשֶׁלֹּא לַחְתֹּם, אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לַחְתֹּם:


שתים לפניה – [The two blessings before the recitation of the Shema] – “who creates light”/יוצר אור and “love” [i.e “with great love, You, O LORD have loved us”/אהבה רבה]

ואחת לאחריה – [The blessing] “True and established/אמת ויציב”

ובערב – [And in the evening] one recites [the blessing(s)]

שתים לפניה – “One brings on the evening twilight/המעריב ערבים” and “With eternal love/אהבת עולם”.

And two afterwards – “True and Certain/אמת ואמונה” and “Cause us to lie down/השכיבנו.”

אחת ארוכה ואחת קצרה – Referring to the two [blessings recited] before the Shema, יוצא אור/”Who Forms light” is a “long” [blessing], in that it opens [with the words] “Praised [are You]” and concludes with “Praised [are You]” and similarly [with the blessing in the Evening service] “Who brings on the evening twilight” [which begins with “Praised are You” and concludes with “Praised are You”]. The blessing “Love” (“With great love” – and its evening equivalent “With eternal love”) is short as it concludes with “Praised [are You]” and does not open with “Praised [are You].”

לחתום – with [the word] “Praised [are You, O LORD].”

שלא לחתום – such as the blessings for fruits and blessing for the commandments.

שתים לפניה. יוצר אור ואהבה:

ואחת לאחריה. אמת ויציב:

ובערב. מברך:

שתים לפניה. מעריב ערבים ואהבת עולם:

ושתים לאחריה. אמת ואמונה והשכיבנו:

אחת ארוכה ואחת קצרה. אשתים שלפניה קאי, יוצר אור ארוכה שפותחת בברוך וחותמת בברוך, וכן מעריב ערבים. אהבה קצרה, שחותמת בברוך ואינה פותחת בברוך:

לחתום. בברוך:

שלא לחתום. כגון ברכת הפירות וברכת המצות: