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Mishnayos Bechoros Perek 8 Mishnah 3

בכורות פרק ח׳ משנה ג׳


With regard to one whose wife had not previously given birth and then gave birth to two males, i.e., twin males, and it is unknown which is the firstborn, he gives five sela coins to the priest after thirty days have passed. If one of them dies within thirty days of birth, before the obligation to redeem the firstborn takes effect, the father is exempt from the payment due to uncertainty, as perhaps it was the firstborn who died. In a case where the father died and the sons are alive, Rabbi Meir says: If they gave the five sela coins to the priest before they divided their father’s property between them, they gave it, and it remains in the possession of the priest. But if not, they are exempt from giving the redemption money to the priest. Rabbi Yehuda says: The obligation to redeem the firstborn already took effect on the property of the father; therefore, in either case the sons, his heirs, are required to pay the priest. If the wife gave birth to a male and a female and it is not known which was born first, the priest has nothing here, as it is possible that the female was born first.

מִי שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ וְיָלְדָה שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, הָאָב פָּטוּר. מֵת הָאָב וְהַבָּנִים קַיָּמִים, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אִם נָתְנוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא חָלְקוּ, נָתָנוּ. וְאִם לָאו, פְּטוּרִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר נִתְחַיְּבוּ נְכָסִים. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם:


וילדה שני זכרים נותן חמש סלעים – that one of them is a first-born male.

האב פטור – that he is able to state that the firstborn died. But when the son died prior to [the age of] thirty days [old], he (i.e., the father) is not liable for the redemption [of the first-born son]. But now when the matter is in doubt for perhaps the first-born son died and he (i.e., the father) is exempt, or perhaps, the one who remains is the [actual] first-born son and he (i.e., the father) is liable [for the child’s redemption]. The Kohen removes [the money] from his fellow, for the burden of proof is upon the claimant. And the same rule applies when the remaining son is exempt from redeeming himself when he will be an adult.

מת האב – after thirty days [of fathering a son].

ואם לאו פטורים – for Rabbi Meir holds that the brothers who divided the possessions of their father, they have the law of the bought property (especially – mortgaged property sold), because there is no retroactive designation (though generally, it is accepted with regard to questions of rabbinic law, but not with regard to maters of Torah law) to each one [of the sons] on his inheritance, but they are as if each purchased from the other his portion and these five Selaim were the obligation of their father as a loan by mouth, but a loan by mouth is not collected/paid from the bought property, therefore, if they divided it up until they didn’t give it, they are exempt.

רבי יהודה אומר נתחייבו הנכסים (i.e., the estate is liable) – for he holds that the brothers who divided [the property] are inheritors and there is retroactive designation to state that each one merited in his portion, and a loan by mouth one collects from the inheritors. And the Halakha is according to Rabbi Yehuda.

זכר ונקבה אין כאן לכהן כלום – for one can say that the daughter came out first, and the burden of proof is upon the claimant (see Tractate Bava Kamma, Chapter 3, Mishnah 11).

וילדה שני זכרים נותן חמש סלעים. דאחד מהן בכור:

האב פטור. דמצי למימר הבכור מת. וכשמת הבן קודם שלשים אינו חייב בפדיון, ועכשיו שהדבר ספק שמא הבכור מת ופטור, שמא זה שנשאר הוא הבכור וחייב, הוי הכהן מוציא מחבירו, והמוציא מחבירו עליו הראיה. והוא הדין שהבן הנשאר פטור מלפדות את עצמו כשיהיה גדול:

מת האב. לאחר שלשים:

ואם לאו פטורים. דסבר ר׳ מאיר האחין שחלקו בנכסי אביהן דין לקוחות יש להן, לפי שאין ברירה לכל אחד על ירושתו, אלא הרי הן כאילו קנו זה מזה כל אחד חלקו ואלו החמש סלעים היה חוב על אביהן כמלוה על פה, ומלוה על פה אינה גובה מן הלקוחות, הלכך אם חלקו עד שלא נתנו פטורים:

רבי יהודה אומר נתחייבו הנכסים. קסבר האחים שחלקו יורשים הן, דיש ברירה לומר כל אחד זכה בחלקו, ומלוה על פה גובה מן היורשים. והלכה כר׳ יהודה:

זכר ונקבה אין כאן לכהן כלום. דאמר ליה הנקבה יצאה ראשונה, והמוציא מחבירו עליו הראיה: