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Mishnayos Bechoros Perek 1 Mishnah 3

בכורות פרק א׳ משנה ג׳


In the case of a female donkey that had not previously given birth and now gave birth to two male offspring, as there is no doubt that one of them is firstborn, its owner gives one lamb to the priest in redemption of that firstborn. If it gave birth to a male and a female and it is not known which was born first, he designates one lamb as firstborn in case the male was born first. Nevertheless, since it is merely a monetary debt to the priest, the burden of proof rests upon the claimant, in this case the priest. Due to that uncertainty, the priest can offer no proof and the owner keeps the lamb for himself. If an individual has two donkeys, and both of his two donkeys had not previously given birth and they now gave birth to two males, one each, the owner gives two lambs to the priest. If they together gave birth to a male and a female or to two males and a female, he gives one lamb to the priest, as one of the males is certainly a firstborn. If they together gave birth to two females and a male or to two males and two females, the priest receives nothing, as perhaps the two firstborn were females.

חֲמוֹר שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה, וְיָלְדָה שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן טָלֶה אֶחָד לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, מַפְרִישׁ טָלֶה אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ. שְׁתֵּי חֲמוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרוּ, וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן שְׁנֵי טְלָיִים לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּנְקֵבָה, נוֹתֵן טָלֶה אֶחָד לַכֹּהֵן. שְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת וְזָכָר אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּשְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם:


נותן טלה אחד לכהן – in redemption. For whichever way you look at it, one of them is a firstborn.

זכר ונקבה - and it is not known if the male came out first and he is the firstborn, or the female came out first, and there isn’t here the law of the firstborn.

מפריש טלה – because of doubt, and he releases from him the holiness of the redemption of the donkey.

והוא לעצמו- that he himself will consume the lamb and he will not give it to the Kohen, for the Kohen is like someone who removes something from his fellow, and the proof is upon him to bring witnesses that the male came out first. But there is no prohibition, for even the firstling of a complete donkey that was redeemed with a young sheep, furthermore there is no sanctity neither with him or that which he redeems it with. But rather where there is theft, if he does not give a lamb to the Kohen, that is his (i.e., the Kohen’s) money, but here there is no theft for there is a doubt.

שתי חמורות וילדו כו' – a male and female, he gives one lamb to a Kohen because of the male [firstborn]. Or, two males and one female, that one gave birth to a male and one gave birth to a male and female, or alternatively, one gave birth to two males and one gave birth to a female, we give one lamb to the Kohen for certainly there is one male that is definitely a firstborn, but regarding the other where there is a doubt lest the female was born first, we set aside a lamb and it is for himself.

שני זכרים ושני נקבות – they are of doubt, for perhaps each one of them gave birth to a male and a female, and perhaps the females came out first, therefore, the Kohen does not have anything here, but he designates for them two lambs to release them from their sin and they are for themselves (i.e., the owners), such My teachers explained. But Maimonides holds that there is nothing for the Kohen her and even a lamb for himself he does not have to separate/dedicate, because there is in each one [of these donkeys] a great down when they gave birth to two females and one male, for perhaps one of the two of them gave birth to two females and the other gave birth to a male. Or perhaps, this one gave birth to a female, and the other [gave birth to] a male and afterwards a female, or a female and afterwards a male. mal And similarly there are many doubts with [offspring of] two males and two females, therefore even one lamb for himself he does not designate/separate, and the explanation of my Rabbis is the essential principle.

נותן טלה אחד לכהן. בפדיון. דממה נפשך חד מינייהו בכור:

זכר ונקבה. ואין ידוע אם יצא זכר תחלה והוא בכור, או נקבה יצאה תחלה ואין כאן דין בכורה:

מפריש טלה. משום ספק, ומפקיע עליו קדושת הפטר חמור:

והוא לעצמו. שהוא עצמו יאכל הטלה ולא יתננו לכהן, דכהן הוי מוציא מחבירו, ועליו הראיה להביא עדים שהזכר יצא תחלה. ואיסורא ליכא, דאפילו פטר חמור גמור שפדאו בשה שוב אין קדושה לא בו ולא בפדיונו, אלא גזל הוא דאיכא אם אינו נותן טלה לכהן, דממונו הוא, והכא ליכא גזל דספק הוא:

שתי חמורות וילדו וכו׳ זכר ונקבה, נותן טלה אחד לכהן בשביל הזכר. או שני זכרים ונקבה, דחדא ילדה זכר וחדא ילדה זכר ונקבה או אי נמי חדא ילדה שני זכרים ואחת ילדה נקבה, נותנים טלה אחד לכהן דהא חד זכר איכא ודאי בכור, ואאידך דהוי ספק דשמא הנקבה יצאה תחלה מפריש טלה והוא לעצמו:

שני זכרים ושתי נקבות. ספק הן, דשמא כל חדא ילדה זכר ונקבה, ושמא הנקבות יצאו תחלה, הלכך אין לכהן כאן כלום, אלא מפריש עליהם שני טלאים לאפקועי לאיסורייהו והן לעצמן, כך פירשו רבותי. אבל רמב״ם סבר דאין כאן לכהן כלום ואפילו טלה לעצמו אינו צריך להפריש, משום דאיכא בכל חד מהנך ספיקי טובא כשילדו שתי נקבות וזכר, שמא אחת משתיהן ילדה שתי נקבות והאחרת זכר, או שמא זו ילדה נקבה והאחרת זכר ואחריו נקבה, או נקבה ואחריה זכר. וכן ספיקות הרבה יש בשני זכרים ושתי נקבות, הלכך אפילו טלה לעצמו אינו מפריש. ופירוש רבותי עיקר: