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Mishnayos Bava Metzia Perek 5 Mishnah 7

בבא מציעא פרק ה׳ משנה ז׳


One may not set a price with a buyer for the future delivery of produce until the market rate is publicized, as, if he is paid for supplying produce at a later date in advance of the publication of the market rate for that type of produce, he may set a price that is too low. The money paid in advance is deemed a loan, and if the initial payment was lower than the later market value, delivery of the produce will constitute interest on the loan. Once the market rate is publicized, the seller may set a price, even if the produce is not yet in his possession. The reason for this is that even though this one, i.e., the seller, does not have any of the produce, that one, someone else, has it, and the seller could theoretically acquire the produce now at the price he set. If the seller was first among the reapers, having harvested his crop before the market rate was set, he may set a price with a buyer as he wishes for a stack of grain that is already in his possession, or for a large basket of grapes prepared for pressing into wine, or for a vat [hama’atan] of olives prepared for pressing into oil, or for the clumps [habeitzim] of clay prepared for use by a potter, or for plaster nearing the end of the manufacturing process at the point after he has sunk it, i.e., baked it, in the kiln. Although the market rate has yet to be set, the seller may nevertheless set a price now for their eventual delivery. The mishna continues: And he may set a price with a buyer for manure on any of the days of the year, as the manure will certainly be available and it is therefore viewed as if it is ready. Rabbi Yosei says: One may set the price of manure only if he already had a pile of manure in his dunghill to which the sale can immediately be applied, but the Rabbis permit it in all cases. And one may also set a price with a buyer at the highest rate, i.e., a large amount of produce sold for the lowest price, stipulating with the seller that the sale price match the lowest market rate for this product during the course of the year. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even if he did not set a price with him beforehand at the highest rate, the buyer may say to the seller: Give me the produce at this rate or give me back my money. Since he did not formally acquire the produce, if the price changed he may withdraw from the transaction.

אֵין פּוֹסְקִין עַל הַפֵּרוֹת עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא הַשָּׁעַר. (יָצָא הַשַּׁעַר, פּוֹסְקִין, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לָזֶה יֵשׁ לָזֶה). הָיָה הוּא תְחִלָּה לַקּוֹצְרִים, פּוֹסֵק עִמּוֹ עַל הַגָּדִישׁ, וְעַל הֶעָבִיט שֶׁל עֲנָבִים, וְעַל הַמַּעֲטָן שֶׁל זֵיתִים, וְעַל הַבֵּיצִים שֶׁל יוֹצֵר, וְעַל הַסִּיד מִשֶּׁשִּׁקְּעוֹ בַכִּבְשָׁן. וּפוֹסֵק עִמּוֹ עַל הַזֶּבֶל כָּל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֵין פּוֹסְקִין עַל הַזֶּבֶל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה לּוֹ זֶבֶל בָּאַשְׁפָּה. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין. וּפוֹסֵק עִמּוֹ כְשַׁעַר הַגָּבוֹהַּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פָסַק עִמּוֹ כְשַׁעַר הַגָּבוֹהַּ, יָכוֹל לוֹמַר תֶּן לִי כָזֶה, אוֹ תֶּן לִי מְעוֹתָי:


היה הוא תחלה לקוצרים – and he has a stack/heap of grain but the market price has not yet been published.

פוסק עמו – for whatever market price that he wants, and since he has it (i.e., pile of grain), there is no interest here, since from now that heap is acquired for him, and he though he did not take possession [by drawing or seizing], since he does not have it also, it is not other than the dust of interest of the Rabbis, but if he has it, a decree was not made.

על העביט – a large utensil that they collect/pile up the grapes before treading and they become heated to producer their wine well, and of olives, it is called a vat or pit where olives are packed until they form a viscid mass.

על הביצים של יוצר – if he brought in dust and made it eggs to make of them a dishes, he sets with him on the dishes for whatever price he wants, and even though the [official] price had not been publicized.

ועל הסיד – he sets with him at whatever price that he wants from when he let them down into the kiln/furnace of wood and stones to burn them and make of them plaster.

וחכמים מתירין – there is a difference between the Sages and the first Tanna [of the Mishnah], for the First Tanna speaks of all the days of the year and Rabbi Yosi disagrees with him and says that there is no difference between the dry season (i.e., literally, the “days of sunshine) and the days of the rainy season until the seller has manure in the dung heaps, but the Sages permit specifically during the days of sunshine, for even if he doesn’t have [manure], others have it, for everyone has manure which has decayed and became crushed during the rainy season, but not during the rainy season itself. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

כשער הגבוה – [according to the price at the height of the market – Bava Metzia 72b] – and if the market price became less than what it is now currently, give me according to the lowest market price. The height – that is the cheapest that when giving tall and much produce lesser costs.

תן לי כזה או תן לי מעותי – for since he did not take possession (by pulling/seizing), he is able to retract, and even [the curse of] “He who punished [the generation of the Flood….will punish those who do not stand by his word (although the court cannot compel him) is not [applicable] , for he did not give his monies on the condition to receive [the produce] now, but rather later, and in the midst of things, the market price changed, it is the mere opinion of people of delighting in the cheap market price. But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Yehuda.

היה הוא תחלה לקוצרים. ויש לו גדיש ועדיין לא יצא השער:

פוסק עמו. באיזה שער שירצה. דכיון דיש לו אין כאן רבית, דמעכשיו אותו גדיש קנוי לו. ואע״ג דלא משך, כיון דכי אין לו נמי לא הוה אלא אבק רבית דרבנן, כי יש לו לא גזור:

על העביט. כלי גדול שצוברים בו את הענבים לפני דריכה והם מתחממים להוציא יינם יפה. ושל זיתים קרוי מעטן:

על הבצים של יוצר. אם הכניס עפר ועשאו בצים לעשות מהן קדרות, פוסק עמו על הקדירות באיזה שעי שירצה, ואע״פ שלא יצא השער:

ועל הסיד. פוסק עמו באיזה שער שירצה משישקענו בכבשן העצים והאבנים לשרוף ולעשות מהן סיד:

וחכמים מתירין. איכא בין חכמים לת״ק, דת״ק כל ימות השנה קאמר. ופליג עליה רבי יוסי ואמר לא שנא ימות החמה ולא שנא ימות הגשמים עד שיהיה לו למוכר זבל באשפות. וחכמים מתירין דוקא בימות החמה, שאע״פ שאין לו, יש לאחרים, שהכל יש להן זבל שכבר נרקב ונשוף בימות הגשמים. אבל בימות הגשמים לא. והלכה כחכמים:

כשער הגבוה. אם יפחות השער ממה שהוא עכשיו, תתן לי בשעור הזול. גבוה, היינו בזול שנותנין פירות גבוהים ורבים בדמים מועטים:

תן לי כזה או תן לי מעותי. שהרי לא משך ויכול לחזור בו, ואפילו מי שפרע ליכא הואיל ולא נתן מעותיו על מנת לקבל עכשיו אלא לאחר זמן, ובתוך כך נשתנה השער, סתם דעתיה דאינש אתרעא זילא פסיק. ואין הלכה כרבי יהודה: