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Mishnayos Bava Metzia Perek 5 Mishnah 1

בבא מציעא פרק ה׳ משנה א׳


The Torah states the prohibition against taking interest: “And if your brother becomes impoverished, and his hand falters with you, then you shall support him; whether a stranger or a native, he shall live with you. You shall not take from him interest [neshekh] or increase [tarbit]; you shall fear your God and your brother shall live with you. You shall not give him your money with neshekh and with marbit you shall not give him your food” (Leviticus 25:35–37). The mishna asks: Which is neshekh, and which is tarbit? Which is the case in which there is neshekh? With regard to one who lends another a sela, worth four dinars, for five dinars to be paid later, or one who lends another two se’a of wheat for three se’a to be returned later, this is prohibited, as it is taking interest [noshekh]. And which is the case in which there is tarbit? It is the case of one who enters into a transaction that yields an increase in the produce beyond his investment. How so? For example, one acquired wheat from another at the price of one kor of wheat for one gold dinar, worth twenty-five silver dinars, with the wheat to be supplied at a later date, and such was the market price of wheat at the time he acquired it. The price of one kor of wheat then increased and stood at thirty dinars. At that point, the buyer said to the seller: Give me all of my wheat now, as I wish to sell it and purchase wine with it. The seller said to him: Since it is ultimately wine that you want, not wheat, each kor of your wheat is considered by me to be worth thirty dinars, and you have the right to collect its value in wine from me. And in this case, the seller did not have wine in his possession. If wine then appreciates in value, the result will be an interest-bearing transaction, as the buyer collects from the seller wine worth more than the wheat for which he paid.

אֵיזֶהוּ נֶשֶׁךְ וְאֵיזֶהוּ תַרְבִּית. אֵיזֶהוּ נֶשֶׁךְ. הַמַּלְוֶה סֶלַע בַּחֲמִשָּׁה דִינָרִין, סָאתַיִם חִטִּין בְּשָׁלשׁ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נוֹשֵׁךְ. וְאֵיזֶהוּ תַרְבִּית, הַמַּרְבֶּה בְּפֵרוֹת. כֵּיצַד. לָקַח הֵימֶנּוּ חִטִּין בְּדִינַר זָהָב הַכּוֹר, וְכֵן הַשַּׁעַר, עָמְדוּ חִטִּין בִּשְׁלשִׁים דִּינָרִין, אָמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי חִטַּי, שֶׁאֲנִי רוֹצֶה לְמָכְרָן וְלִקַּח בָּהֶן יָיִן. אָמַר לוֹ הֲרֵי חִטֶּיךָ עֲשׂוּיוֹת עָלַי בִּשְׁלשִׁים, וַהֲרֵי לְךָ אֶצְלִי בָּהֶן יָיִן, וְיַיִן אֵין לוֹ:


איזהו נשך שהוא נושך – that he took from him what he (i.e., the other) didn’t give him.

המרבה בפירות – he increases the reward for himself with produce, and whether by the loan of money or whether by the loan of produce it is interest, for he increases his money. But the concluding part of the Mishnah deals with Rabbinic interest, as it explains – which through the means of commercial transactions.

דינר זהב – twenty-five silver denars.

וכן השער – Such is how they were sold in the city, and it was permissible for him to give money now on the condition that he would give him the wheat all the days of the year with these monies according to the monetary rate, and even though that he doesn’t have the wheat right now. It is taught [in the Mishnah] of our chapter (Mishnah 7):, “when the market price is out, you may purchase, for although he (i.e., the seller) has not goods as yet, others have,” and this seller can purchase them now with these monies.

עמדו חטין בשלשים דינרים אמר לו תן לי חיטי – and this is permissible, if he gives him the wheat, but if he fixed a price to give him for them wine, it is prohibited, lest the wine become more expensive, for since he doesn’t have any wine. And even though he fixed a price with him according to the current market price of wine, and the market price had gone out. For since he doesn’t give him money that we would be able to say that he could purchase wine with these monies tha the received, but he makes the value of the wheat an obligation and to set a price on his obligation of wine, this is prohibited if he lacks wine. For if he had wine, it would be purchased to him from now to the person who comes to set a price on the obligation of wine, and when it went up in price, it was in his possession when it went up in price.

איזהו נשך. שהוא נושך. דשקל מיניה מאי דלא יהיב ליה:

המרבה בפירות. המרבה שכר לעצמו בפירות. ובין בהלואת כסף ובין בהלואת פירות הוי רבית. שהרי מתרבה ממונו. אלא דבסיפא, רבית דרבנן קמפרש שהוא דרך מקח וממכר:

דינר זהב. עשרים וחמשה דינרי כסף:

וכן השער. כך היו נמכרין בעיר. והותר לו לתת מעות עכשיו על מנת ליתן לו זה חטין כל ימות השנה בדמים הללו כשיעור מעותיו ואע״פ שעכשיו אין לו חטין, דתנן בפרקין יצא השער פוסקין, אע״פ שאין לזה יש לזה, ויכול המוכר הזה לקנותם עתה במעות הללו:

עמדו חטין בשלשים דינרין אמר לו תן לי חיטי. וזה מותר אם נתן לו חטין. אבל אם פסק לתת לו בהן יין, אסור, שמא יוקיר היין, הואיל ואין לו יין. ואע״פ שפוסק עמו כשער היין של עכשיו וכבר יצא השער, הואיל ואינו נותן לו דמים שנוכל לומר יכול הוא לקנות יין בדמים שקבל אלא בא לעשות עליו דמי החטין חוב ולפסוק על החוב יין, אסור אם יין אין לו. דאי הוה ליה יין, הוי קנוי לו מעכשיו לזה שבא לפסוק על החוב יין. וכי אייקר ברשותיה אייקר: