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Mishnayos Bava Metzia Perek 4 Mishnah 3

בבא מציעא פרק ד׳ משנה ג׳


The measure of exploitation for which one can claim that he was exploited is four silver ma’a from the twenty-four silver ma’a in a sela, or one-sixth of the transaction. Until when is it permitted for the buyer to return the item? He may return it only until a period of time has passed that would allow him to show the merchandise to a merchant or to his relative who is more familiar with the market price of merchandise. If more time has elapsed he can no longer return the item, as the assumption is that he waived his right to receive the sum of the disparity. The mishna continues: Rabbi Tarfon ruled in Lod: Exploitation is a measure of eight silver ma’a from the twenty-four silver ma’a of a sela, one-third of the transaction. And the merchants of Lod rejoiced, as this ruling allowed them a greater profit margin and rendered the nullification of a transaction less likely. Rabbi Tarfon said to them: Throughout the entire day it is permitted to renege on the transaction and not merely for the period of time it takes to show the purchase item to a merchant or a relative. The merchants of Lod said to him: Let Rabbi Tarfon leave us as we were, with the previous ruling, and they reverted to following the statement of the Rabbis in the mishna with regard to both rulings.

הָאוֹנָאָה, אַרְבָּעָה כֶסֶף מֵעֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה כֶסֶף לַסֶּלַע, שְׁתוּת לַמִּקָּח. עַד מָתַי מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִיר. עַד כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּרְאֶה לְתַגָּר אוֹ לִקְרוֹבוֹ. הוֹרָה רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן בְּלוֹד, הָאוֹנָאָה שְׁמֹנָה כֶסֶף לַסֶּלַע, שְׁלִישׁ לַמִּקָּח, וְשָׂמְחוּ תַגָּרֵי לוֹד. אָמַר לָהֶם, כָּל הַיּוֹם מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִיר. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, יַנִּיחַ לָנוּ רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן בִּמְקוֹמֵנוּ, וְחָזְרוּ לְדִבְרֵי חֲכָמִים:


האונאה ארבעה כסף – four silver MAOT in which there are six MAOT in a denar, and the SELAH is four denarim.

מעשרים וארבעה כסף לסלע – if the purchase was in SELAH monies which is twenty-four MAOT, for now it would be that overcharging is one-sixth to the purchase, he would be liable to restore to him all of his overcharging [which is] four silver [coins].

עד מתי מותר להחזיר – he who was defrauded, and that the Mishnah used the language of מותר/”permitted” to teach us that it is not possible, for even he who is punished to return the purchase or that he should give him [back] his overcharge.

עד כדי שיראה – the purchase to the traveling merchant or to his relatives. And if he delayed further, he renounced on his overcharging and the seller will always retract, for the purchase is not in his hands that he is would be able to show it to the traveling merchant or to his relatives if he had been overcharged. And if it becomes known that a thing came into his hands like that which is similar to his sale and he knows that he erred and was silent and did not make a claim, he cannot retract and make a claim for he has renounced it.

ושמחו תגרי לוד – who were experts in business and sell at a high price. But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Tarfon.

האונאה ארבעה כסף. ארבעה מעות כסף שהם שש מעות בדינר, והסלע ארבע דינרין:

מעשרים וארבע כסף לסלע. אם היה המקח בדמי הסלע שהוא עשרים וארבע מעות דהשתא הויא אונאה שתות למקח, חייב להשיב לו כל אונאתו ארבעה כסף:

עד מתי מותר להחזיר. מי שנתאנה. והא דנקט לשון מותר, לאשמועינן דליכא אפילו מי שפרע להחזיר המקח או שיתן לו אונאתו:

עד כדי שיראה. המקח לתגר או לאחד מקרוביו. ואם שהה יותר, מחל על אונאתו. והמוכר לעולם חוזר, שהרי אין המקח בידו שיוכל להראות לתגר או לקרובו אם נתאנה. ואם נודע שבא לידו דבר כיוצא בממכרו וידע שטעה ושתק ולא תבע, אינו יכול לחזור ולתבוע, שהרי מחל:

ושמחו תגרי לוד. שהיו בקיאין בסחורה ומוכרין ביוקר. ואין הלכה כר׳ טרפון: