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Mishnayos Bava Kamma Perek 8 Mishnah 6

בבא קמא פרק ח׳ משנה ו׳


One who strikes another must give him a sela. Rabbi Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili that he must give him one hundred dinars. If he slapped another on the cheek, he must give him two hundred dinars. If he slapped him on the cheek with the back of his hand, which is more degrading than a slap with the palm, he must give him four hundred dinars. If he pulled his ear, or pulled out his hair, or spat at him and his spittle reached him, or if he removed the other’s cloak from him, or if he uncovered the head of a woman in the marketplace, in all of these cases, he must give the injured party four hundred dinars. This is the principle of assessing payment for humiliation caused to another: It is all evaluated in accordance with the honor of the one who was humiliated, as the Gemara will explain. Rabbi Akiva said: Even with regard to the poor among the Jewish people, they are viewed as though they were freemen who lost their property and were impoverished. And their humiliation is calculated according to this status, as they are the children of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and are all of prominent lineage. The mishna relates: And an incident occurred involving one who uncovered the head of a woman in the marketplace, and the woman came before Rabbi Akiva to request that he render the assailant liable to pay for the humiliation that she suffered, and Rabbi Akiva rendered the assailant liable to give her four hundred dinars. The man said to Rabbi Akiva: My teacher, give me time to pay the penalty, and Rabbi Akiva gave him time. The man then waited for her until she was standing by the opening of her courtyard, and he broke a jug in front of her, and there was the value of about an issar of oil inside the jug. The woman then exposed her own head and she was wetting [metapaḥat] her hand in the oil, and placing her hand on her head to make use of the oil. The man set up witnesses to observe her actions, and he came before Rabbi Akiva, and he said to him: Will I give four hundred dinars to this woman for having uncovered her head? By uncovering her head for a minimal benefit, she has demonstrated that this does not cause her humiliation. Rabbi Akiva said to him: You did not say anything, i.e., this claim will not exempt you. One who injures himself, although it is not permitted for him to do so, is nevertheless exempt from any sort of penalty, but others who injured him are liable to pay him. In this case as well, the man was liable to compensate the woman for shaming her, despite the fact that she did the same to herself. Similarly, one who cuts down his own saplings, although it is not permitted for him to do so, as this violates the prohibition of: “You shall not destroy” (see Deuteronomy 20:19), is exempt from any penalty, but others who cut down his saplings are liable to pay him.

הַתּוֹקֵעַ לַחֲבֵרוֹ, נוֹתֵן לוֹ סֶלַע. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי, מָנֶה. סְטָרוֹ, נוֹתֵן לוֹ מָאתַיִם זוּז. לְאַחַר יָדוֹ, נוֹתֵן לוֹ אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת זוּז. צָרַם בְּאָזְנוֹ, תָּלַשׁ בִּשְׂעָרוֹ, רָקַק וְהִגִּיעַ בּוֹ רֻקּוֹ, הֶעֱבִיר טַלִּיתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ, פָּרַע רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה בַּשּׁוּק, נוֹתֵן אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת זוּז. זֶה הַכְּלָל הַכֹּל לְפִי כְבוֹדוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אֲפִילוּ עֲנִיִּים שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, רוֹאִין אוֹתָם כְּאִלּוּ הֵם בְּנֵי חוֹרִין שֶׁיָּרְדוּ מִנִּכְסֵיהֶם, שֶׁהֵם בְּנֵי אַבְרָהָם, יִצְחָק וְיַעֲקֹב. וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד שֶׁפָּרַע רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה בַּשּׁוּק, בָּאת לִפְנֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, וְחִיְּבוֹ לִתֵּן לָהּ אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת זוּז. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי, תֶּן לִי זְמַן. וְנָתַן לוֹ זְמַן. שְׁמָרָהּ עוֹמֶדֶת עַל פֶּתַח חֲצֵרָהּ וְשָׁבַר אֶת הַכַּד בְּפָנֶיהָ, וּבוֹ כְּאִסָּר שֶׁמֶן. גִּלְּתָה אֶת רֹאשָׁהּ, וְהָיְתָה מְטַפַּחַת וּמַנַּחַת יָדָהּ עַל רֹאשָׁהּ. הֶעֱמִיד עָלֶיהָ עֵדִים, וּבָא לִפְנֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. אָמַר לוֹ, רַבִּי, לָזוֹ אֲנִי נוֹתֵן אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת זוּז. אָמַר לוֹ, לֹא אָמַרְתָּ כְּלוּם. הַחוֹבֵל בְּעַצְמוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי, פָּטוּר. אֲחֵרִים שֶׁחָבְלוּ בּוֹ, חַיָּבִין. וְהַקּוֹצֵץ נְטִיעוֹתָיו, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי, פָּטוּר. אֲחֵרִים שֶׁקָּצְצוּ אֶת נְטִיעוֹתָיו, חַיָּבִים:


התוקע לחבירו – who attaches his fingers in the palm of his hand and strikes him with a fist (see Talmud Bava Kamma 90a about other possible meanings – like slapping his neighbor on the ear or shouting into his ear).

נותן לו סלע – the monetary value of his embarrassment. But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Yehuda who holds that he gives him a Maneh.

סטרו – that he struck him with the palm of his hand on his cheek, and there is greater indignity.

צרם – pulled. Another language: he cut/damaged.

הכל לפי כבודו – all of these monies that were mentioned in the Mishnah are not other than for the most honored. But for a despised person, we lessen it for him.

אמר רבי עקיבא וכו' – Rabbi Akiva disputes with the first Tanna/teacher as he holds that whether the person is honored or despised, they are equivalent for the laws of these fines. But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Akiva.

ונתן לו זמן – and these words are for indignity when it doesn’t cause loss of money, we give him time. But for damages that cause him loss of money, we don’t give him time.

שימר – he waited until he saw here standing at the entrance of her courtyard.

ובו כאיסר שמן – oil that is purchased for an Issar.

לזו אני נותן ארבע מאות זוז – for on an Issar’s worth of oil she disregarded herself to reveal her head and she shows that she is not strict about indignity/embarrassment.

התוקע לחבירו. שמחבר אצבעותיו בפס ידו ומכה אותו באגרוף:

נותן לו סלע. דמי בשתו. ואין הלכה כר״י שאומר מנה:

סטרו. שהכהו בפס ידו על לחיו, ואיכא בשת טפי:

צרם. משך. לשון אחר, פגם:

הכל לפי כבודו. כל אלו הדמים שהוזכרו במשנה אינם אלא למכובד ביותר. אבל לאדם בזוי פוחתין לו:

אמר רבי עקיבא וכו׳ רבי עקיבא פליג אתנא קמא, וסבר דבין מכובד בין בזוי כולן שוין לדיני קנסות הללו. ואין הלכה כרבי עקיבא:

ונתן לו זמן. והני מילי לבושת דלא חסריה ממונא, יהבינן זמן. אבל לנזקין דחסריה ממונא, לא יהבינן זמן:

שמרה. המתין לה עד שראה אותה עומדת על פתח חצרה:

ובו כאיסר שמן. שמן קנוי באיסר:

לזו אני נותן ארבע מאות זוז. שעל כאיסר שמן זלזלה בעצמה לגלות ראשה ומראה היא שאינה מקפדת על הבושת: