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Mishnayos Bava Kamma Perek 4 Mishnah 4

בבא קמא פרק ד׳ משנה ד׳


If an ox of a halakhically competent person gored an ox of a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor, all of whom are not considered halakhically competent, the owner is liable for damages. But if an ox of a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor gored an ox of a halakhically competent person, the owner of the ox is exempt from liability. If an ox belonging to a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor gored another ox and caused damage, the court appoints a steward for them and warns them with regard to the ox that gored in the presence of the steward. The ox is thereby rendered a forewarned ox, since the steward is considered its owner with regard to the requirement of the verse: “And warning has been given to its owner” (Exodus 21:29). If, after the ox was rendered forewarned in this manner, the deaf-mute regained his hearing, the imbecile became halakhically competent, or the minor reached the age of majority, the ox has thereby reverted to its status of innocuousness. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir, who maintains that the ox had the status of a forewarned ox only while it was under the custody of the steward. Rabbi Yosei says: It retains its previous status of being forewarned. If a stadium [ha’itztadin] ox, i.e., one that is trained to fight in a stadium, gores and kills a person, it is not liable to be put to death, as it is stated: “And if an ox gores a man or a woman” (Exodus 21:28). This is referring only to an ox that gores on its own initiative, but not to the case of an ox where others induced it to gore. Therefore, the owner of a stadium ox, which is trained to gore, is exempt from liability if it does.

שׁוֹר שֶׁל פִּקֵּחַ שֶׁנָּגַח שׁוֹר שֶׁל חֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, חַיָּב. וְשֶׁל חֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, שֶׁנָּגַח שׁוֹר שֶׁל פִּקֵּחַ, פָּטוּר. שׁוֹר שֶׁל חֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן שֶׁנָּגַח, בֵּית דִּין מַעֲמִידִין לָהֶן אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס וּמְעִידִין לָהֶן בִּפְנֵי אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס. נִתְפַּקַּח הַחֵרֵשׁ, נִשְׁתַּפָּה הַשּׁוֹטֶה וְהִגְדִּיל הַקָּטָן, חָזַר לְתַמּוּתוֹ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי הוּא בְחֶזְקָתוֹ. שׁוֹר הָאִצְטָדִין אֵינוֹ חַיָּב מִיתָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כא) כִּי יִגַּח, וְלֹא שֶׁיַּגִּיחוּהוּ:


ושל חרש שוטה וקטן שנגח שור של פקח פטור – for we don’t appoint an administrator/guardian for an innocuous ox to collect [damages] from his estate for they are movables, and we stated in the first chapter (Tractate Bava Kamma 14b) an equivalent amount of money teaches that the Jewish court does not need anything other than property from which debts may eventually be collected and we establish this for orphans.

מעמידין להן אפוטרופוסים וכו' – if they (i.e., oxen) are known to be gorers, we appoint for them a guardian/administrator and not to pay one-half damage other than for forewarned oxen, for if it gores again, they pay from the most valuable property and they collect the damages from the land of orphans.

חוזר לתמותו – for he (i.e., Rabbi Meir) holds that if it (i.e., the animal) left the domain of his masters an entered into the domain of other masters, he returns to his [former status] of innocuousness, for a different domain changes the law of its being “forewarned.”

שור האיצטדין – that is designated for goring and they (i.e., the oxen) are instructed in this.

ושל חרש שוטה וקטן שנגח שור של פקח פטור. שאין מעמידין אפוטרופוס לתם לגבות מגופו, דמטלטלי הוא, ואמרינן בפ״ק [דף י״ד] שוה כסף מלמד שאין ב״ד נזקקים אלא לנכסים שיש להן אחריות, ואוקימנא ביתמי:

מעמידין להן אפוטרופוס וכו׳ אם הוחזקו נגחנים, מעמידין להם אפוטרופוס ולא לשלם חצי נזק אלא לשווייה מועד. דכי הדר נגח משלם מן העליה ויגבו הנזק מקרקע של יתומים:

חוזר לתמותו. דקסבר מועד שיצא מרשות בעליו ונכנס לרשות בעלים אחרים חוזר לתמותו. דרשות משונה משנה את דין התראתו:

שור האצטדין. שמיוחד לנגיחות, ומלמדין אותו לכך: