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Mishnayos Bava Kamma Perek 2 Mishnah 2

בבא קמא פרק ב׳ משנה ב׳


Within the context of the primary category of Eating, for what damage caused with the tooth is an animal deemed forewarned? It is deemed forewarned with regard to eating food items fit for its consumption. The domesticated animal is deemed forewarned with regard to eating fruits and vegetables. If the animal ate garments or vessels, the owner pays half the cost of the damage. As these are not items fit for its consumption, the animal is not deemed forewarned in this case. In what case is this statement applied, that one pays the full value of the food eaten by the animal? It is a case where the animal ate the food on the property of the injured party; but if the animal ate food in the public domain, the owner of the animal is exempt from liability. And even if the animal ate food in the public domain, if the animal derives benefit from eating another’s produce in the public domain, the owner pays for the benefit that it derives, just not for the full cost of the food. Under what circumstances does the owner of the animal pay for the benefit that it derives? If the animal ate produce in the public square in the area before the storefronts, the owner of the animal pays for the benefit that it derives. If the animal ate from food placed at the side of the public square, which is not a public thoroughfare, the owner of the animal pays for what it damaged, as the legal status of that area is like that of the property of the injured party. If the animal ate produce from the entrance of the store, its owner pays for the benefit that it derives, as the status of a store entrance is like that of the public domain. If the animal ate produce from inside the store, its owner pays for what it damaged.

כֵּיצַד הַשֵּׁן מוּעֶדֶת. לֶאֱכֹל אֶת הָרָאוּי לָהּ. הַבְּהֵמָה מוּעֶדֶת לֶאֱכֹל פֵּרוֹת וִירָקוֹת. אָכְלָה כְסוּת אוֹ כֵלִים, מְשַׁלֵּם חֲצִי נֶזֶק. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים. בִּרְשׁוּת הַנִּזָּק, אֲבָל בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, פָּטוּר. אִם נֶהֱנֵית, מְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּהֱנֵית. כֵּיצַד מְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּהֱנֵית. אָכְלָה מִתּוֹךְ הָרְחָבָה, מְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּהֱנֵית. מִצִּדֵּי הָרְחָבָה, מְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁהִזִּיקָה. מִפֶּתַח הַחֲנוּת, מְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּהֱנֵית. מִתּוֹךְ הַחֲנוּת, מְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁהִזִּיקָה:


כיצד השן מועדת – in what manner is it “forewarned?” And it answers: to eat what is is appropriate for it.

משלם חצי נזק – for it is unusual (to eat clothing or chew up utensils).

בד"א וכו' - it refers to when it eats fruits or vegetables that are in the public domain, it is exempt, for we require (Exodus 22:4): “When a man lets his livestock loose to graze in another’s land,” but if it ate clothing or utensils, even in the public domain it is liable one-half damages, for people generally put clothing and utensils in the public domain according to the hour and it is the “horn” in the domain of the person suffering damages and he is liable.

משלם מה שנהנית – these are not valid payments but rather if it ate something that its value was great, we view it as if they barley, and he doesn’t pay anything other than the value of the barley at its cheapest, which is a full third less than what they are sold for in the marketplace. But, if it ate something whose worth is less than the barley, he pays the worthy of that thing that it ate at its cheapest, and if it (i.e., the animal) ate that which he damaged such as that it ate the wheat but since it did not benefit, it [the owner] is exempt [from payment].

מצדד הרחבה משלם מה שהזיקה – if it (i.e., the animal) stood and at the sides of the road in a place where it is not the manner of bulls to walk there, it is not compared to the public domain, and it pays what it damages.

כיצד השן מועדת. באיזה דבר היא מועדת. ומשני, לאכול את הראוי לה:

משלם חצי נזק. דמשונה הוא:

בד״א וכו׳ אאכלה פירות או ירקות קאי, דברה״ר פטור דבעינן וביער בשדה אחר. אבל אכלה כסות וכלים אפילו ברשות הרבים חייב חצי נזק, דעבדי אנשי דמנחי כסות וכלים ברה״ר לפי שעה, והוי קרן ברשות הרבים וחייב:

משלם מה שנהנית. לאו תשלומין מעלייתא, אלא אם אכלה דבר שדמיו יקרים רואים אותו כאילו הן שעורים, ואינו משלם אלא דמי שעורים בזול, שהוא שליש פחות ממה שהם נמכרים בשוק. ואם אכלה דבר שדמיו פחותים מן השעורים, משלם דמי אותו דבר שאכלה בזול. ואם אכלה דבר שהזיק לה, כגון שאכלה חטים, הואיל ולא נהנית פטור:

מצדי הרחבה משלם מה שהזיקה. אם הלכה ועמדה בצדי הרחבה במקום שאין דרך שוורים ללכת שם, לאו כרה״ר דמי, ומשלמת מה שהזיקה: