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Mishnayos Bava Kamma Perek 10 Mishnah 8

בבא קמא פרק י׳ משנה ח׳


In the case of one who stole a lamb from a flock and returned it without informing the owner that he had done so, and then it died or was stolen, the thief is liable to pay restitution for it. If the lamb’s owners did not know about the entire incident, i.e., they did not know that it was stolen and they did not know that it was returned, and they counted the flock of sheep and found it whole, the thief is exempt from paying.

הַגּוֹנֵב טָלֶה מִן הָעֵדֶר וְהֶחֱזִירוֹ, וּמֵת אוֹ נִגְנַב, חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ. לֹא יָדְעוּ בְעָלִים לֹא בִגְנֵבָתוֹ וְלֹא בַחֲזִירָתוֹ, וּמָנוּ אֶת הַצֹּאן וּשְׁלֵמָה הִיא, פָּטוּר:


חייב באחריותו – for once he stole it, it exists in his domain, and the restoration that he made is not a restoration (without notifying the owner of such).

ואם לא ידעו בו וכו' – This is how our Mishnah is reconciled, he is responsible for it, whether he counted them or not. When is this case? When they (i.e., the owners) did not know of its theft and its restoration. But if they knew of the theft and counted the sheep and found it (i.e., the number) to be complete, he is exempt from paying. And this is its explanation: if the lamb died or was stolen after the thief returned it, the thief is responsible for it – whether the owners had counted the sheep and it is complete, or whether they had not counted the sheep. When is this the case? When the owners did not know about the theft of the lamb, for any of the sheep that regularly go outside, he must be careful with it even more, and this is the case, for since the owners did not know about its theft or that it was accustomed to leave, and they were not careful with it. The thief is liable to pay as the sheep were lost because of his indirect effect. But, if the owners knew about the theft of the lamb, and afterwards counted the sheep and found it to be complete, as the stolen lamb had been returned. If so, they already know that there is one sheep that regularly leaves outside, and they have to be careful with it. But if they were not careful, they would lose, and the thief is exempt from having to pay.

חייב באחריותו. דמכי גנבה קם ליה ברשותיה, והשבה דעבד לאו השבה היא:

ואם לא ידעו בו וכו׳ מתניתין הכי מתרצא, חייב באחריותו בין מנו בין לא מנו. אימתי בזמן שלא ידעו בו הבעלים בגניבתו ובחזרתו. אבל ידעו הבעלים בגנבתו ומנו את הצאן והיא שלימה, פטור מלשלם. והכי פירושה, מת או נגנב הטלה לאחר שהחזירו הגנב, חייב באחריותו, בין שמנו הבעלים הצאן והיא שלימה בין שלא מנו הצאן. אימתי בזמן שלא ידעו הבעלים בגניבת הטלה, שכל צאן שהיא רגילה לצאת חוץ, צריך ליזהר בה ביותר, וזו הואיל ולא ידעו הבעלים בגניבתה ושהיתה למודה לצאת ולא נזהרו בה, חייב הגנב לשלם, שבגרמתו נאבדה הצאן. אבל אם ידעו הבעלים בגניבת הטלה, ואח״כ מנו הצאן ונמצאת שלימה שהוחזר הטלה הגנוב, א״כ כבר ידעו שיש צאן אחת שלמודה לצאת חוץ, והיה להם להזהר בה, ואם לא נזהרו אינהו דאפסוד, ופטור הגנב מלשלם: