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Mishnayos Bava Basra Perek 10 Mishnah 5

בבא בתרא פרק י׳ משנה ה׳


In the case of a debtor who repaid part of his debt and with the agreement of the creditor deposited the promissory note with a third party serving as a trustee to ensure that the creditor would not collect the full amount, and the debtor said to the trustee: If I have not given you the balance from now until such and such a day, give the creditor his promissory note, thereby enabling him to collect the full amount stated on the note, if the stipulated time arrived and the debtor did not give the balance to the trustee, Rabbi Yosei says: The trustee should give the promissory note to the creditor, in accordance with the debtor’s stipulation. Rabbi Yehuda says: The trustee should not give it, as the stipulation is void.

מִי שֶׁפָּרַע מִקְצָת חוֹבוֹ וְהִשְׁלִישׁ אֶת שְׁטָרוֹ וְאָמַר לוֹ, אִם לֹא נָתַתִּי לְךָ מִכָּאן וְעַד יוֹם פְּלוֹנִי תֶּן לוֹ שְׁטָרוֹ, הִגִּיעַ זְמַן וְלֹא נָתַן, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, יִתֵּן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא יִתֵּן:


והשליש את שטרו – the lender and the borrower transferred the document to the hand of a third-party for it was a trouble for them to write a receipt and they relied upon the third party.

ר' יוסי אומר יתן – for he holds that Asmakhta (i.e., a promise to submit to a forfeiture of pledged property – or equivalent – without having received a sufficient consideration) is a valid legal transfer of property (see Talmud Bava Batra 168a). A person who promises t his fellow something on the condition that he will do something for him in the future, and he relies upon his intention at the time of the condition that he would be able to fulfill it. But when the time comes, he is not able to fulfill it. This is called Asmakhta. But with regard to the Jewish legal decision, Asmakhta does not acquire/gives no title, unless he acquired it from his hand in an important Jewish court. But he caused to take hold of his merits in the same Jewish court where he transferred his documents and his proofs, and he said: “if I don’t bring it from now until thirty days, my benefits will be voided. But my teachers/Rabbis explain that every Jewish court that are specialists and know the laws of Asmakhta are called an important Jewish court in this matter. But Maimonides says that there is no important Jewish court other than a Jewish court ordained in the Land of Israel.

והשליש את שטרו. המלוה והלוה מסרו השטר ביד שליש. שטורח היה להם לכתוב שובר וסמכו על השליש:

ר׳ יוסי אומר יתן. דסבירא ליה אסמכתא קניא. המבטיח לחבירו דבר על מנת שיעשה לו דבר לעתיד וסומך בלבו בשעת התנאי שיוכל לקיים וכשהגיע הזמן אינו יכול לקיים, זו קרויה אסמכתא ולדברי ר׳ יוסי קניא. ולענין פסק הלכה, אסמכתא לא קניא, אלא א״כ קנו מידו בב״ד חשוב, והתפיס זכיותיו באותו ב״ד שמסר שטרותיו וראיותיו, ואמר אי לא אתינא מכאן ועד שלשים יום ליבטלן זכיותי. ורבותי מפרשים שכל בית דין שבקיאים ויודעים בדיני אסמכתא נקראים בית דין חשוב לענין זה. אבל הרמב״ם אומר שאין בית דין חשוב אלא ב״ד הסמוך בארץ ישראל: